Managed Gigabit Switch Buying Guide

Nowadays, the managed Gigabit switch has been a hot cake in small and medium enterprise networks. In the context of that, it’s necessary for us to catch the trend and learn something about the managed Gigabit switch so that you can buy it more wisely.

What Is Managed Gigabit Switch?

Before we introduce the managed gigabit Ethernet switch, let’s overview the background information of it firstly. Gigabit Ethernet switch, also called network switch, refers to a box-like device connecting together a number of other devices, such as computers, printers, and servers on a Local Area Network (LAN) and utilize the packet switching to forward data to and from those connections.

While a managed switch is a kind of fiber switch offering a more tailored experience to users. It not only offers tools and the means to monitor the network, but also control over LAN traffic. Managed switches are very much like Virtual Private Servers where you’ll be in charge of setting everything up, managing the device and take responsibility for any configurations that cause downtime.

1GE PoE+ Series Managed Switches

Figure 1: 1GE PoE+ Series Managed Switches

How to Choose a Managed Gigabit Switch as Required?

According to different features and standards, such as the managed level and the number of ports, the managed Gigabit switch can be grouped into different types. And users can select the required managed switches based on these features.

Managed Level

Based on different managed levels, the managed Gigabit switch can be grouped into the partially managed (smart) switch and fully managed (enterprise) switch. Smart switches have a limited number of options for configuration. However, comparing with the fully managed switch, it can be a cheap managed gigabit switch for home and office use. While fully managed switches are targeted at servers and enterprises, offering a wide array of tools and features to manage the complicated network better.

Number of Ports

Classified by the number of ports, the managed Gigabit switch has been known in a different way. Typically, there are four types are commonly found in the market: 8-port managed gigabit switch, 16-port managed gigabit switch, 24-port managed gigabit switch, and 48-port managed gigabit switch. These ports may be a combination of SFP or SFP+ slots for fiber connectivity, but more commonly they are copper ports with RJ-45 connectors on the front, allowing for transmission distances up to 100 meters. With fiber SFP modules, the distances can be supported up to 40 kilometers.

8-Port Gigabit PoE+ Managed Switch with 2 SFP

Figure 2: 8-Port Gigabit PoE+ Managed Switch with 2 SFP

Buyers Guide

After we have a basic idea of types of managed Gigabit switches. it’s time to remind you some factors should be taken into consideration when you buy a managed Gigabit switch. Firstly, you should clear about the location you want to install whether just for home, office or enterprise. It decides that whether you need to buy a partially managed switch or a fully managed switch.

Then you should review your network environment and think about the number of users your network supports. In a short, the larger your organization is, the more ports you’ll need. For example, if you are a home user, an 8 or 24 port switch is enough, but a 48 port switch, designed for medium or larger network environment, will be a waste of resource.

24-Port Gigabit PoE+ Managed Switch with 4 SFP

Figure 3: 24-Port Gigabit PoE+ Managed Switch with 4 SFP

Conclusion

Through this idea, we can have a basic mind about the background information of the managed Gigabit switch, such as meaning and types. Moreover, we also offer some tips for people who want to buy it. Hope this article can help you choose a right managed Gigabit switch.

Tips on Buying Fiber Optic Cables

Buying fiber optic cables has been a daily thing in our life. Since the field of fiber optic network is still unfamiliar to most people, not to say the detailed information about the fiber optic cable. In this article, we are going to provide some tips for you to buy fiber optic cables. Before that, let’s go over the background information of the fiber optic cable for your better understanding.

What Is the Fiber Optic Cable

The fiber optic cable refers to a kind of telecommunication cable, containing one or more glass or plastic made optic fibers, usually slightly wider than a human hair. It can carry light to transmit data. Designed for long distance transmission from hundreds of miles to thousands of miles, the fiber optic cable is an ideal choice for networking, telecommunications and storage applications in wiring closets, distribution frames, gateways, central offices and data centers.

Types of Fiber Optic Cables

According to different standards or features, there are different types of fiber optic cables. Basically, based on different transmission modes, the fiber optic cable can be grouped into two types: single mode fiber and multimode fiber.

Single Mode Fiber

The fiber optic cable for this type is a single strand of glass fiber with a diameter of 8.3 to 10 microns, which is narrower than the multimode fiber. Under such a condition, the beam of light is transmitted in a much tighter space with a higher transmission rate. Therefore, it makes the long-distance communication, sometimes as far as between continents more available.

Figure 1: Single Mode Bend Insensitive Fiber Optic Cable

Figure 1: Single Mode Bend Insensitive Fiber Optic Cable

Multimode Fiber

Compared with single mode fibers, the multimode fiber has a larger diameter (62.5µm or 50µm), allowing more space to generate and collect light. Considering about multimode fibers’ transmission performance, it is mostly used for communications over short distances no longer than 2000 m, such as within a building or in a small campus.

 Figure 2: OM1 Multimode Fiber Optic Cable

Figure 2: OM1 Multimode Fiber Optic Cable

Tips on Buying Fiber Optic Cables

After an overview of fiber optic cables, it’s time for us to learn how to buy fiber optic cables. There are some major steps offered to follow with.

Firstly, preparation. For anyone buying fiber optic cables, they need to have a full preparation. On the one hand, you need to know your network environment, such as the required transmission speed, distance etc. On the other hand, you need to have a basic understanding of the features of all kinds of optic cables. As we mentioned above, there are many types of fiber optic cables available in the market not only just based on different transmission modes, for example, according to different connectors, there are LC fiber, SC fiber, etc. Therefore, you need to know which type suits your network environment.

Next, you need to have a budget for buying optic cables in your mind. There are so many fiber optic cable suppliers in the online market, almost every supplier will offer a different fiber optic cable price. After that, you can begin your online searching. When you browse the product, you can make a comparison of the fiber optic cable price per meter among different suppliers. Besides, you have to check the suppliers’ reputation making sure their service and products are reliable.

Last, but not least. Some buyers buying fiber optic cables for their company need to consider more carefully for their complicate requirements. You had better buy your cables from suppliers who are also manufacturers, such as FS.COM, one of the top fiber optic cable manufacturers. Their service will be more mature, reliable and professional, especially for their after-sale service.

Conclusion

Buying fiber optic cable is not so difficult as you have thought. After reading this article, we believe things will be different for you.

Tunable vs Standard DWDM SFP+ Modules

Nowadays, SFP+ modules have been largely applied into use. However, in order to meet people’s demand for greater transmission capacity, the Dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) as a kind of technology, combining multiple data signals on laser beams at various wavelengths and transmitting them over a single optic fiber network is also in urgent need to combine with SFP+ modules. Currently, the tunable DWDM SFP+ modules and the standard DWDM SFP+ are commonly found in the market. In this article, we are going to introduce these two types to you.

What Are the Tunable DWDM SFP+ Modules

At first, let’s go over the SFP+ transceiver definition from SFP+ transceiver wiki. In short, the SFP+ transceiver is the enhanced version of SFP module. It is a compact, hot pluggable optic module transceiver used for telecommunications and data communication applications. (If you want to get more details about how to use SFP+ transceiver, you can refer to the article A Complete Guide of Installing or Removing Transceiver Modules.) There are many types of SFP+ modules, among which the tunable DWDM SFP+ modules is a very important one.

The tunable DWDM SFP+ module can also be called tunable SFP+ transceiver, because it’s only available in DWDM form for its narrower grid than CWDM’s. The tunable DWDM SFP+ module is a unique device which enables you to set the channel or “color” the laser emits. According to the network demand, you can adjust your transmission wavelength unlimitedly within the C-band DWDM ITU Grid.

10G DWDM C-band Tunable SFP+

Figure 1: 10G DWDM C-band Tunable SFP+ Modules

Why Prefer the Tunable DWDM SFP+ Module

Since the standard DWDM SFP+ module is also a popular type in the market, you may still get confused about these two SFP+ types. In fact, the tunable DWDM SFP+ module is more preferred by the user. In the light of that, this part will explore this doubt.

First, the cost will be a major factor. Frankly, in short term, the price of a tunable DWDM SFP+ is much higher than a DWDM SFP+. However, the conventional DWDM SFP+ transceivers use fixed-wavelength lasers as light sources. Hence, for different wavelength channels, you need to use the corresponding optical transceivers to receive and transmit signals. However, a tunable DWDM SFP+ can operate at any channel wavelength for its tunable laser. Moreover, in order to prevent an unexpected breakdown, users have to prepare kinds of DWDM SFP+ modules with different wavelengths for a rainy day. Considering that will be a huge cost for any user, using a tunable DWDM SFP+, things will be quite different. In light of that, from a long term, the tunable DWDM SFP+ will definitely be the best choice to save your cost.

Second, it’s the flexible network management. When a DWDM network runs with lots of nodes, for example, for 80 different wavelengths, their management could be a nightmare. In different locations, you have to prepare couples of DWDM SFP+ optics for each wavelength. Thus tunable DWDM SFP+ would be a good choice. It is configured for a specific wavelength to support bandwidth changes as needed in the optical network.

10G DWDM SFP+ 100GHz

Figure 2: 10G DWDM SFP+ Modules 100GHz

Conclusion

Through this article, the two special types of transceiver modules in combining with the DWDM technology have been introduced: tunable DWDM SFP+ modules and standard DWDM SFP+ modules. After that, based on a comparison of these two types of modules, reasons contributing to people’s preferred choice of tunable DWDM SFP+ modules have also been explored. Hope it has helped to clear your doubt these two types.

Fiber SFP Module VS Fiber Media Converter

Many devices in the optical communication field are sharing similar functions, such as fiber SFP module and fiber media converter. They are designed as the equipment for photoelectric conversion. Some of you may get confused about the two seemingly similar devices. Don’t worry, in this article, we are going to reveal the secret between SFP fiber module and fiber media converter. In the beginning, let’s go over the definitions of them.

What Is the Fiber SFP Module

The SFP (small form-factor pluggable) module, also called mini GBIC (gigabit interface converter), is a compact, hot-pluggable optical transceiver used for both telecommunication and data communication applications. It converts electrical signals to optical signals and vice versa. Usually, the SFP module consists of optical SFP and copper SFP. And the type depends on whether their SFP ports connect with fiber optic cables or copper cables. The fiber SFP module can support SONET, Gigabit Ethernet, Fiber Channel, and other communication standards.

Figure 1: SFP Copper RJ45 100m Transceiver

Figure 1: SFP Copper RJ45 100m Transceiver

What Is Fiber Media Converter?

Similar to the working mode of optical transceivers, the fiber media converter receives data signals from one media and transmits them to another. Conventionally, fiber media converters can support two kinds of conversion: copper-to-fiber and fiber-to-fiber. Copper-to-fiber media converters are devices designed to connect two dissimilar media types, such as the twisted pair with fiber optic cabling. They will be chosen when the transmission distance of two network devices with copper ports need to be extended via fiber optic cabling. When it comes to the fiber-to-fiber conversion, it supports a connectivity not only between multimode fiber and single mode fiber but also a dual fiber link and single fiber using Bi-directional (BIDI) flow. Conversions between different wavelengths can also be achieved by some fiber-to-fiber media converters.

Figure 2: 1*SFP and 2*RJ45 Ports Mini Gigabit Ethernet Media Converter

Figure 2: 1*SFP and 2*RJ45 Ports Mini Gigabit Ethernet Media Converter

Connection: Fiber SFP Module vs Fiber Media Converter

A fiber SFP module has a much smaller size than a fiber media converter. Before catching the connection between fiber SFP modules and fiber media converters, we had better know the media converter’s physical structure in advance. So far, copper-to-fiber media converters cover two types of ports. One is for copper (usually the RJ45 port) and the other is for fiber. As for fiber ports, two kinds can also be found. One is designed to insert fiber optic transceivers (SFP, XFP and etc), and the other to connect fiber optic patch cables (SC, LC and etc). As for fiber-to-fiber media converters, both the input ports and output ports are for fiber link. It can be a fiber optic connector for fiber patch cables or an SFF connector for optical modules. After knowing the media converter’s physical structure, it will be easier for us to grasp how does it coordinate with the SFP fiber module. Therefore, if you want to make an SFP module and a media converter both into use at the same time, you need to choose a fiber media converter with fiber ports for an optical transceiver. That is to say, you can insert you SFP module into one side and connect an RJ45 copper cable with the copper port on the other.

Figure 3: 1SFP+1RJ45 Ports Mini Gigabit Ethernet Media Converter

Figure 3: 1SFP+1RJ45 Ports Mini Gigabit Ethernet Media Converter

Conclusion

To sum up, in this article, we introduce what the fiber SFP module and the media converter are. Then after studying the media converter’s physical structure and how it coordinates with the fiber SFP module, we can understand the connection between the fiber SFP module and the media converter.

Fiber Optic Cable Core-How Much Do You Know About It?

For anyone who wants to know fiber optic cable core, it’s a must to know the structure of a fiber optic cable. For a fiber optic cable, it consists of three basic parts: the core, the fiber optic cable core cladding, and the coating layer outside the cladding.

What Is Fiber Optic Cable Core?

A conventional fiber optic cable core is a glass or plastic made cylinder running along the fiber’s length. This part is designed for light transmission. Therefore, the larger the core, the more light that will be transmitted into the fiber. As we mentioned before, the core is surrounded by the cladding layer to provide a lower fiber optic cable core index of refraction. So more light can be transmitted into the fiber.

The structure of the fiber optic cable

Figure 1: the structure of the fiber optic cable

Fiber Optic Cable Core Types

According to different standards or features, the fiber optic cable can be grouped into different types. For example, classified by connectors, we can get LC fiber, SC fiber, etc; classified by transmission mode, we can get multimode fiber and single mode fiber. Likewise, with different features, the fiber optic cable core can also be divided into different types.

Fiber Optic Cable Core Material

According to the material, plastic and glass cores can be found. When the core is made from pure glass, the cladding is from the less pure glass. Glass type has the lowest attenuation over long distances but comes at the highest cost. As for the plastic core type, it is not as clear as glass one but is more flexible and easier to handle. Moreover, the plastic type is more affordable for us.

Fiber Optic Cable Core Size

Based on sizes, the fiber optic core can be grouped into quite a lot of types. Basically, the most common core sizes are 9 µm in diameter (single mode), 50 µm in diameter (multimode), 62.5 µm in diameter (multimode). For your better understanding, please look at Figure 2 as below. It’s a comparison of the three common sizes when they are inside the same cladding layer diameters (125 µm).

A comparison of optical fiber core diameters

Figure 2: A comparison of optical fiber core diameters

Fiber Optic Cable Core Numbers

Featured by how many cores in fiber optic cables, two kinds of cable cores can be arranged: the single core and the multicore. The single core type refers to the fiber cable that consists of a core and a cladding layer, which is the most common type in the market. However, the multicore fiber optic cable means that in the same cladding layer, there are more than one core in it. The commonly used cables are four, six, eight, twelve, twenty-four cores.

Multicore Fiber Cable

Figure 3: Multicore fiber cable

Conclusion

Based on the knowledge about fiber optic cables, we have a basic idea about its structure and functions each part has played, especially the fiber optic cable core. After knowing what the core is, we also introduce the types of the fiber optic core. Classified by different features, such as core material and size, we can get different types. Hoping after this article, you will have a much clearer vision about the fiber optic core.

All You Need Is 1U Cable Manager

Have you been fed up with a frequently messy network, performance issues, and data transmission errors? 1U cable manager comes in, all your problems out. As its name shows, the 1U cable manager is a device placed in front of a cabinet or rack and manage all sorts of cables, like fiber, coax, patch cables, etc. In that way, cables can be well-organized and protected. Here, “1U” refers to the height of racks or cabinets of a standard unit, usually 1.75 inches height. Therefore, 1U cable management also refers to the horizontal cable management.

Types of the 1U Cable Manager

Altogether, there are four common types of 1U horizontal cable manager in the market: horizontal cable managers with finger duct, D-ring, brush strip, and the L-shaped horizontal cable manager. Each type has its own traits and applications.

1U Horizontal Cable Manager with Finger Duct

The horizontal cable management device of this type is one of the most popular solutions to organize cables in the market. This 1U cable manager consists of three parts: 1U cable management panel with pass-through holes, finger ducts, and a removable top cover. The finger ducts and the pass-through holes are designed to route cables and reduce the cable strain. As for the removable cover, it makes bundled cables to be easily added or removed; besides, it protects cables from damage or dust. In most cases, this cable manager is made of plastic and is available in single-sided or dual-sided. The dual-sided horizontal cable organizer can support for front and back cable management in a more flexible way.

figure 1 single-sided and dual-sided 1u cable managers with finger ducts

Figure 1: Single-sided and dual-sided 1U cable managers

1U Horizontal Cable Manager with D-Ring

The horizontal cable manager with D-ring usually consists of the horizontal lacer panel and D-rings, and sometimes D-rings will be set with a 1U patch panel and a lacing bar. In most cases, it is made of steel providing great durability. And the robust ring can route large amounts of cable through it. Cable managers of this type can be used in multi-media applications with all coax, copper, and fiber optic cables. This 1U cable manager provides an open-access management tool with great flexibility. That is to say, following the demand to add or reduce cables, the D-ring can be added or removed as the requirement.

Figure 2: Different horizontal cable managers with D-rings

Figure 2: Different horizontal cable managers with D-rings

1U Cable Manager with Brush Strip

Horizontal cable manager with brush strip is often made of high-quality steel and high-density nylon bristles. This type is designed to increase overall airflow within the cabinet network, helping to prevent equipment from overheating, dust, dirt. This 1U cable manager is the best choice for routing cables from the front of the rack to the rear in a simply organized way.

figure 3 1u cable manager with brush strip

Figure 3: 1U cable manager with brush strip

L-Shaped 1U Horizontal Cable Manager

L-shaped horizontal cable manager or L-shaped horizontal lacing bar is made of high-quality cold-rolled steel plate. It is an efficient tool for rack or enclosure cabling. The manager’s angled “L” shape can ensure a proper cable bend radius so that it can greatly avoid cable strain and prevent damage to ports on your rack-mount equipment.

figure 4 L-shape-lacer-bar

Figure4: L-Shaped Horizontal Cable Lacer Bar with Angled 4” Offset

How to Choose a Cable Manager

There are various types of cable managers. Besides the 1U cable managers introduced as above, the vertical cable manager is also a common type found in the market. As for the vertical cable manager, it also consists of different kinds with different features for different applications. When you want to buy one, it’s easy for you to get lost. There are some tips that may help you with it. At first, you should have a basic idea of your situation of the equipment that the cable manager is going to place. Is the horizontal way or the vertical way more suitable for you? Then you should consider the cable you are going to manage, such as the quantity and the material. Are you going to handle with fiber, coax, or copper cables? Do you need a compact cable manager or a loose one? Would you prefer a single-sided one or a dual-sided one? Next, you still need to think about expecting functions for this manager. Apart from organizing cables, do you want to increase overall airflow, or prevent overheating and dust, etc? Then, you should take into account the size, making you managers’ sizes fitting for your cables and equipment placed with.

Conclusion

With 1U cable manager the messy network will no longer be a problem for us. It makes full use of our space in a scientific way. Making the network environment more organized and neat, and also avoiding some potential threats to out network safety. In addition, the cost for a 1U cable manager is within our reach. With so many strengths, you are never too early to buy one.

Could You Tell the differences Among Cat5e, Cat6, and Cat6a

Maybe you are not quite familiar with the term “twisted pair” but you might have been accustomed to using Ethernet cables and Ethernet patch cables in your daily life. Among all the Ethernet cables, currently, Cat5e, Cat6, and Cat6a cables are the most popularly used types.

What the Ethernet Cable Is

Usually, the Ethernet patch cable is used to connect devices within a local area network (LAN), metropolitan area network (MAN), and wide area network (WAN), such as PCs, routers, and switches. In order to reduce the interference between internal wires and external wires, twisted pair (a cable twisting technology) is adopted to be the basis for all Ethernet cables. Totally, the Ethernet cable consists of seven types: Cat3, Cat5, Cat5e, Cat6, Cat6a, Cat7, and the latest Cat8. Here, “Cat” stands for their “Category,” and the number with it refers to the specifications to which the cable was manufactured. Usually, the higher number indicates its speed is faster and frequency is higher (measured in Mhz). Every type has its unique features applying in different situations. Currently, Cat3 and Cat5 Ethernet cables have been out of stage for their bad performance. You can hardly see them in our daily life. As for the most used Ethernet cables, Cat5e, Cat6, and Cat6a will be chosen by most of the users. Therefore, in this article, we will make a contrast for these three types and hope it can provide a reference for how to choose an Ethernet cable.

Cat5e Cable

The letter “e” in Cat5e represents “enhanced”, which means the Cat5e patch cable is an enhanced version of Cat5. It’s designed to support up to 1000 Mbps or Gigabit transmission speed and 100 Mhz Brandwidth. Besides, the Cat5e cable can greatly reduce the crosstalk. The crosstalk refers to unwanted signals are transferred between communication channels. In that way, contrasting with Cat5 cables, Cat5e cables share a faster speed, more steady network, and low production cost.

Figure 1: Cat5e Cable

Figure 1: Cat5e Cable

Cat6 Cable

As an improved version of Cat5e cables, the Cat6 Ethernet cable can support the transmission speed up to 10 Gbps and the bandwidth up to 250 MHz. It’s a more tightly wound than those of their predecessor and is often outfitted with foil or braided shielding. This shielding protects the twisted pairs of wires inside the Ethernet cable, helping to prevent crosstalk and noise interference. One thing should notice is that the Cat6 cable supports higher data rates of 10Gbps. However, the transmission speed at 10Gbps is only supported over distances of 37-55 meters.

Figure 2: Cat6 Cable

Figure 2: Cat6 Cable

Cat6a Cable

The letter “a” in Cat6a means “augmented”. In contrast with Cat6 cables, Cat6a cables can support data transfer rates of up to 10Gbps at a maximum bandwidth of 500MHz over longer cable lengths (100 meters). It’s backward compatible with Cat6 and Cat5e. Similarly, the Cat6a also reduces the crosstalk among the pairs, which further reduces the delay in the cables.

Figure 3: Cat6a Cable

Figure 3: Cat6a Cable

Conclusion

Through this article, you will have a clear mind about the differences among Cat5e, Cat6, and Cat6a cables and how to choose the right one. For 10GBASE-T users, you can get more details from this article: Running 10GBASE-T Over Cat6 vs Cat6a vs Cat7 Cabling? Hope this article can make a difference in helping you out.

How Much Do You Know About Multimode Fiber Optic Cables

If the multimode fiber is mentioned, most of you may be familiar with this term. As a significant member of the large fiber optic cable family, multimode fiber optic cable also consists of many sub-branches. However, not all the people are clear about these subbranches. Therefore, in this article, we will introduce the multimode fiber optic cable and its subbranches to you.

What Are Multimode Fiber Optic Cables

In optical fiber technology, the multimode fiber is a kind of optical fiber that is designed to carry multiple light rays or modes concurrently, each at a slightly different reflection angle within the optical fiber core, typically 50 or 62.5 μm for its core diameter. Mostly, the multimode fiber is used for communications over short distances, such as within a building or on a campus for the reason that its modes tend to disperse over longer lengths (this is called modal dispersion).

Applications of Multimode Fiber

Typical multimode transmission speed and distance limits are 100 Mbit/s for distances up to 2 km (100BASE-FX), 1 Gbit/s up to 1000 m, and 10 Gbit/s up to 550 m. In addition, the equipment used for communications over multimode optical fiber is less expensive than that for single-mode optical fiber. Because of its high capacity, reliability, and cheap price, the multimode optical fiber mostly is used for backbone applications in buildings, aerospace and LAN network, storage area networks.

Types of Multimode Fiber

Identified by ISO 11801 standard, multimode fiber optic cables can be classified into the OM1, OM2, OM3, OM4, and OM5 fiber. Specified by that Standard, “OM” is abbreviated for optical multimode. These five types will be presented in the following parts.

OM1 Fiber

Wearing an orange jacket, OM1 fiber cable possess a core size of 62.5 µm, supporting 10 Gigabit Ethernet at lengths of up to 33 meters. It is most commonly used for 10/100 Megabit Ethernet applications. This type is commonly used as an LED light source.

OM2 Fiber

Just like OM1, OM2 fiber also comes with an orange jacket and uses an LED light source. But, its core size is 50 µm, supporting up to 10 Gigabit Ethernet at lengths up to 82 meters and more commonly used for 1 Gigabit Ethernet applications.

Figure 1: OM2 Fiber
OM3 Fiber

Like OM2, the OM3 fiber cable’s core size is 50 µm, but it wears an aqua jacket and is optimized for laser-based equipment. OM3 supports 10 Gigabit Ethernet at lengths up to 300 meters. Besides, OM3 is able to support 40 Gigabit and 100 Gigabit Ethernet up to 100 meters. However, 10 Gigabit Ethernet is most commonly used.

Figure 2: OM3 Fiber
OM4 Fiber

Being backward compatible with OM3 fiber, the OM4 fiber shares the same aqua jacket with it. The OM4 was developed specifically for VSCEL laser transmission and allows 10 Gig/s link distances of up to 550m compared to 300M with OM3. And it’s able to run at 40/100GB up to 150 meters utilizing an MPO connector.

Figure3: OM4 Fiber
OM5 Fiber

 

OM5 fiber, also known as WBMMF (wideband multimode fiber), is the newest type of multimode fiber, and it is backward compatible with OM4. It has the same core size as OM2, OM3, and OM4. The color of the OM5 fiber jacket was lime green. It is designed and specified to support at least four WDM channels at a minimum speed of 28Gbps per channel through the 850-953 nm window.

Figure 4: OM5 Fiber

Conclusion

Through this article, we will have a basic idea of what the multimode fiber cable is and how many types it has. In general, multimode fiber cable continues to be the most cost-effective choice for enterprise and data center applications up to the 500-600 meter range. However, since the fiber patch cable is a very large family, every kind has its own features. Before making a choice, the key point is we need to understand whether our demands match the patch cable we want to choose.

Things You Should Know About SFP+ Transceiver

SFP+ transceiver in short stands for enhanced Small Form-factor Pluggable transceiver. As an enhanced version of SFP, the SFP+ transceiver is also a compact, hot pluggable optic module transceiver. The SFP+ can be used for telecommunications and data communication applications. With various standards, the SFP+ transceiver can be classified differently. In this text, we mainly focus on the SFP+ transceiver’s host interface, data rate, application, and distance.

Types of SFP+ Transceiver

Classified by host interface, the SFP+ fiber optic transceiver can be divided into linear and limiting transceivers. The linear SFP+ module is most appropriate for 10GBase-LRM; otherwise, a limiting module is preferred with the reason that it contains a signal amplifier to re-shape the degraded (received) signal whereas linear does not.

Classified by data rate, the SFP+ transceiver can still be put into three types: 8.5Gb/s SFP+, 10Gb/s SFP+, 16Gb/s SFP+. With its fast development, many vendors can provide a customized one to meet their customers’ different demands.

Classified by application, BiDi SFP+ modules, CWDM SFP+ modules, DWDM SFP+ modules, and other common SFP+ optical transceivers are covered. Considering CWDM and DWDM SFP+ transceivers, they are regarded as the most convenient and cost-effective choices for a campus, data-center, and metropolitan-area access networks using 10 Gigabit Ethernet, with a transmission speed up to 11.25G. The CWDM SFP+ transceiver is designed for bi-directional (BIDI) serial optical data communications such as IEEE 802.3ae 10GBASE-LR/LW/ER. It can support 18 wavelengths from 1270 nm to 1610 nm and has steps of 20 nm, with a transmission distance from 20 km to 80 km. The DWDM SFP+ transceiver is specifically designed for carriers and large enterprises that require a scalable, flexible, cost-effective system for multiplexing, transporting and protecting high-speed data, storage, voice and video applications in point-to-point, add/drop, ring, mesh and star network topologies. It supports more than 40 channels with a transmission distance up to 80 km. As for the BiDi SFP+ transceiver, it’s the enhanced small form-factor pluggable fiber transceiver designed for bi-directional 10G serial optical data communications. Working over one fiber, the BiDi SFP+ uses WDM technology sharing transmission directions into wavelengths of 1270 nm and 1330 nm with a distance up to 10 km, 20 km, 40 km, or 60 km.

1490nm 80km CWDM SFP+

Figure 1: 1490nm 80km CWDM SFP+ transceiver connected with single mode LC duplex cable

Classified by wavelength, 10G SFP+ can be grouped into short wavelength SFP+, long wavelength SFP+ and extra long one. For example, SFP-10G-SR belongs to the short wavelength (850 nm), supporting multimode fiber, such as OM3 (300 m) and OM4 (400 m). Besides, the 10G SFP+ copper also belongs to the short one. With an RJ45 connector, it is specifically designed for high-speed communication links that require 10 Gigabit Ethernet over Cat 6a/7 cable with a link limit of 30 m. While SFP-10G-LR can support a long wavelength and a long distance up to 10 km by using a single-mode fiber. For extra long wavelength and extended reach, 10GBASE-ER SFP+ can reach 40 km with the wavelength of 1550 nm by using a single-mode fiber, and also the 10GBASE-ZR SFP+ belongs to the extra long one, which can support the wavelength of 1550 nm with a distance up to 80 km.

10G copper SFP+ transceiver

Figure 2: 10G copper SFP+ and RJ45 Ethernet cable

Conclusion

With the above introduction, we will have a basic idea of what the SFP+ transceiver is and how many types it has. Since the SFP+ transceiver enjoys lots of strengths, such as high density, low cost, and low power consumption, it has been frequently used in the fiber communications industry. Now that the SFP+ possesses a wide range of types, it can meet their different needs. There is no need to doubt the SFP+ transceiver will keep releasing a huge potential in the future.

What Is SNMP and How SNMP Works

IT System administrators are responsible for collecting work details of the servers and infrastructures, so as to provide a reference for subsequent network adjustment and improvement. But it’s a difficult task in large systems with hundreds or thousands of devices. SNMP protocol is born to solve this problem that lets the technicians monitor the network devices such as data switch, routers and other devices from a single management host. So what is SNMP, and how SNMP works?

What Is SNMP?

SNMP, also written as Simple Network Management Protocol, is an Internet standard protocol implemented on the application layer. The protocol was created in 1898 as a way of monitoring network performance, error rates and so on. The main purpose of SNMP is to define a unified interface and protocol for devices of different categories, versions and manufactures. Thus, assisted by SNMP, system administrators can remotely monitor and manage the numbers of systems and devices on a network, which can greatly simplify their work and improve efficiency of network administration.

How SNMP Works?

Knowing what is SNMP, here we focus on how SNMP works. In SNMP tutorial, to monitor network effectively, SNMP relies on an architecture consisting of the three parts.

SNMP managers: They can be any type of network machine including but not limited to PoE network switch, access servers, etc that has run SNMP to collect and process information of the devices on the network.

SNMP agents: They are the network-management software modules that run on the network node. They are responsible for gathering local system’s information and translating it to an SNMP-specific form.

Network management station: It’s the base that is shared between agents and managers. And it offers the memory and processing resources to the network.

SNMP works by sending message which is called protocol data units (PDUs) between SNMP managers and agents. Using SNMP queries, the manager can identify and locate the devices by receiving the responses sent by the agent. Then the monitoring tool will record and analyze the information of device performance. Thus, the administrators can manage the devices through SNMP control commands. The following picture shows how SNMP works.

what is SNMPFigure 1: Picture of How SNMP Works

Using SNMP to Monitor Network Device

To help IP administrators solve monitoring issue, FS.COM has released a series of switches including 10gbe switch, 40gbe and even 100gbe switch that are equipped with SNMP function.

The S5800-48F4S is a low latency L2/L3 switch with 48 1GbE SFP ports and 4 10GbE SFP+ ports. It supports MLAG, MPLS, SNMP etc, which is perfect for traditional and fully virtualized data center. As for the SNMP configuration, first you should enter the switch administrative interface. Then find the SNMP tab, and select Enable. And follow the commands to create your SNMP account. Thus, you already are enabled to use SNMP to monitor your network.

switch

Figure 2: S5800-48F4S Switch with SNMP Function

Conclusion

What is SNMP and how SNMP works, now I have explained to you. It is an efficient tool to simplify network monitoring works. So using network switch with SNMP function is a convenient way to collect devices’ data and help IT professionals manage the devices efficiently.

Related Article: SFlow vs NetFlow vs SNMP: What Are the Differences?