10GBASE-T SFP+ Copper Transceiver: A New Option For 10GbE Network

10GBASE-T SFP+ transceiver is specifically designed for high speed communication links that require 10 Gigabit Ethernet over copper cable (Cat 6a/7 cable). 10GBASE-T SFP+ copper transceiver is the first SFP+ transceiver that offers 10 Gb/s communication over this type of media. Compared with other 10GbE optical modules, the 10GBASE-T SFP+ copper  transceiver has stable performance, you can take full advantage of the existing copper cabling. The following post will briefly introduce some related information about 10GBASE-T copper SFP+ transceiver.

Basic Introduction to 10GBASE-T SFP+ Copper Transceiver

10GBASE-T SFP+ copper transceiver has high performance, good reliability and is a cost-effective I/O solution for 10G Ethernet and 10G Fibre Channel applications. SFP+ 10GBASE-T copper transceiver is mainly used in Cat 6a or Cat 7 copper cabling system for 10G transmission with a maximum distance up to 100m. In addition, compared with SFP+ DAC, 10GBASE-T copper SFP+ transceiver can save at least 0.5W power consumption, and its port can both support STP (shielded twisted pair) and UTP (unshielded twisted pair). Therefore 10GBASE-T SFP+ transceiver is becoming more and more popular in network switches and servers because of its lower power consumption and pay-as-you-grow flexibility.

10GBASE-T SFP+ Copper Transceiver Vs. SFP+ Optical Transceiver Vs. SFP+ DAC

SFP+ DAC, SFP+ optical transceiver and 10GBASE-T SFP+ copper transceiver are three common components used in 10G connections. The following chart reveals the differences between them.

10GBASE-T SFP+ Copper Transceiver Vs. SFP+ Optical Transceiver Vs. SFP+ DAC

Form the figure, we can see that each option has its advantages, but 10GBASE-T’s compatibility with existing structured cabling devices and existing low-speed devices makes it uniquely suited for widespread deployment. These features, combined with superior cost and achievable features, make the simplest path of 10GBase migrate from Gigabit Ethernet to 10G Ethernet. What’s more, the 10GBASE-T SFP+ transceiver module has been optimized to save at least 0.5W per port compared to an embedded 10GBASE-T RJ45 port for link distances up to 30m. Thus, the power savings and corresponding operating cost reduction can be substantial.

Features & Advantages of 10GBASE-T SFP+ Copper Transceiver

  • Cost effective at up to 30m distance on UTP cables
  • Extension of the life of any switch hardware, without having to change existing infrastructure
  • Architecture Flexibility: Supports Top of Rack, Middle of Row or End of Row architectures
  • Auto-negotiable backward-compatibility with previous-generation BASE-T networks for a seamless migration to 10GbE
  • Field twisted pair cabling with familiar RJ-45 connector
  • Support for multi-gigabit data rates up to 10 Gbps

10g sfp+ copper rj45 port

Conclusion

As 10GBASE-T network equipment becomes increasingly available, data center decision makers will want to take advantage of the cost savings, convenience, and flexibility provided by deploying 10 Gb/s technology over balanced twisted-pair copper cabling. Nowadays SFP+ 10GBASE-T transceiver, owing to the compatible issue with switches, is not offered by many vendors. However, from a network equipment designer’s perspective, 10G SFP+ copper modules will become popular in the near future. FS.COM has released 10GBASE-T SFP+ copper modules that are tested compatible with major brands like Cisco, Juniper, Dell, Brocade, Arista.

Copper Cabling Choices For 10GbE

As switching standards is growing maturer and copper cabling standards catch up, the use of copper cabling for 10GbE is becoming more and more popular. Currently, there are four different copper cabling technologies for 10 Gigabit Ethernet, each with its pros and cons. Although fiber (SFP+ optics) delivers the lowest latency and feature flexibility, many IT departments still prefer to use copper cabling for switch-to-switch or switch-to-server connections.

10GBase-CX4

10GBASE-CX4 was the first 10G copper standard published by 802.3. CX4 modules use 4-lane PCS and copper cabling and have a maximum distance of 15 meters. Despite its larger size of connector, CX4 module was initially designed as a replacement for legacy Infiniband switching hardware and a lower-cost switch interface. 10GBASE-CX4 offers the advantages of low power, low cost, and low latency, but has a bigger form factor and more bulky cables than the newer SFP+ standard and a much shorter reach than fiber or 10GBASE-T.

10G SFP+ Direct Attach Cabling

10G SFP+ DAC is also known as 10GSFP+Cu, 10GBase-CR, or 10GBase-CX1, SFP+, or 10GbE Cu SFP cable. SFP+ Direct Attached Cables feature rugged twinaxial cables that connect directly into a low-profile small form-factor pluggable plus (SFP+) diecast connector housing. SFP+ Direct Attach has a fixed-length cable, typically 3, 5 or 7m in length, and like 10GBASE-CX4, feature low power, low cost and low latency with the added advantages of using less bulky cables and of having the small form factor of SFP+.

10g sfp+ dac

10GBASE-T

According to wikipedia, 10GBASE-T is a standard released in 2006 to provide 10 Gbit/s connections over unshielded or shielded twisted pair cables, over distances up to 100 meters. 10GBASE-T SFP+ copper transceiver module uses standard RJ-45 connectors that are already widely used with Ethernet. 10GBASE-T cable infrastructure can also be used for 1000BASE-T allowing a transition from 1000BASE-T using auto negotiation to select which speed to use. 10GBASE-T is available from several manufacturers like Mikrotik, HPE and FS.COM with power consumption of 3-4 W per port with current generation PHY’s (2012) and promise even better power management in the future.

Backplane

Backplane Ethernet, also known as 802.3ap, is used in backplane applications such as blade servers and modular routers/switches with upgradable line cards. 802.3ap implementations are required to operate in an environment comprising up to 1 meter (39 in) of copper printed circuit board with two connectors. There are two port types for 10 Gbit/s Backplane specs, (10GBASE-KX4 and 10GBASE-KR). New backplane designs use 10GBASE-KR rather than 10GBASE-KX4.

Conclusion

The growth in the number of 10Gb Ethernet networks and the improved efficiency in the physical layer components, have allowed 10Gb Ethernet deployments to have a much broader footprint. 10GbE optics like 10GBASE-T copper SFP+ transceiver module begin to take up a foothold in 10G network deployment. More importantly, 10GBase-T provides a cost-effective method for migrating from your current network to 10G Ethernet by utilizing your existing RJ-45 copper short connections. For 10GbE network components, you get them either on Amazon, Mikrotik, HP or FS.COM.

How to Solve the Problems When Using SFP Optical Transceiver

The small form-factor pluggable (SFP) optical transceiver is one of the protagonists of modern networking, which is a hot-swappable, compact media connector used for telecommunication and data communications. It is designed to provide instant fiber connectivity for your networking devices, such as routers and switches. It is a cost-effective way to connect a single network device to a wide variety of fiber cable for different distances and fiber types, including Ethernet, SONET, single-mode fiber, and multi-mode fiber. Therefore, most people are using SFP optical transceivers for their 1G transmission, especially Cisco SFP transceiver. At the same time, there are many problems when using these SFP optical transceivers. This article may summary the problems that may occur and provide the guided solutions for you, as well as give you some notes for maintaining the quality of SFP optical transceivers.

SFP Transceiver

Problems & Solutions

Some problems may appear when we are using SFP optical transceivers. Now let’s talk about why these problems happen and how to solve these problems. The problems are classified as transmitting failure and receiving failure. The problems and solutions are as follows:

Optical Interface Is Polluted and Damaged

Owing to the pollution and damage of the optical interface, its optical link loss become higher, resulting in the optical link fails.

Solutions
  • Testing the environment of the exposed optical interface, some dust and pollution may enter into the structure.
  • Testing the link ending of optical fibers, because the optical interface may experience second pollution.
  • Testing the interface of the optical connector with pigtail, it may have some improper uses.
  • Testing the quality of fiber optic connectors, you could use the inferior optical fiber connectors.
Damage of ESD(Electro Static Discharge)

Static electricity will absorb dust, which may change impedance line and affect the life and function of the product. The ESD will damage components, which may work in short-term, but their life is still affected.

Solutions
  • Avoiding the dry environment, for which easily produce the ESD.
  • Avoiding the abnormal operation. For example, operating the non-hot-swappable optical modules with electricity; directly touching the pin of optical transceiver modules by hand without ESD protection; there is not anti-static packaging during the transport and storage process.
  • Avoiding non ground-connection or bad ground connection.
  • Improving the ESD immunity of electronic components, because the ESD is inevitable.
Incompatibility

While SFP transceivers are fully-compliant with IEEE 802.3 and the SFP multi-source agreement (MSA), they may not be compatible with some network switch equipment. Because some switch manufacturers program their equipment to accept only their own brand of SFPs.

Solutions

Each SFP module holds its own memory in Electrically Erasable Programmable Read – Only Memory (EEPROM). This memory is coded with unique identifiers. The firmware of the host device will check the memory for the correct information to confirm compatibility. A SFP transceiver will work in any host device as long as it has the correct coding. Advance transceivers are coded specifically to suit each host device to avoid this problem.

Notes for Maintaining the Quality of SFP Transceiver

Quality is also very important for SFP optical transceiver, for which is the top priority of customers. Here are some notes:

  • Finding the failure product in advance before shipment
  • Prohibiting the faulty module to leave the factory
  • Decreasing reject rate
  • Guaranteeing the working stability of the products after leaving the factory
Summary

SFP optical transceivers provide a cost-effective and flexible solution for network designs. I hope this article can help you solve the problems when you are using the products and learn how to avoid these problems.

What Leads to Mechanical Splice Failure in Fiber Optic Termination?

Mechanical splice connectors are popularly used in FTTH (fiber to the home) fiber optic termination, since they are flexible, cost-effective and quick for field installation. As the FTTH network gradually becomes more widely implemented, fiber optic termination, especially indoor termination, has well become a focus of FTTH network deployment. Though current vendors can provide various types of pre-polished ferrule connectors of high quality which have low insertion loss and high performance, it is still very hard to make a perfect fiber optic termination even with advanced mechanical splicing technology. Because of inappropriate handling, fiber optic termination failures or bad fiber optic termination can occur in mechanical splice. In order to get a good termination, this article will introduce the most common factors that can lead to mechanical splice termination failures and some tips to avoid them.

Brief Introduction to Mechanical Splicing Steps

Before going to the reasons for mechanical splice termination faults, let’s briefly review the steps for mechanical splicing. Firstly, the buffer coatings of fiber optic cable should be mechanically removed, by using sharp blades or calibrated stripping tools. It is important not to damage the fiber surface in any type of mechanical stripping. Then the fibers will be cleaved. After the two fiber ends are held closely and optimally aligned in a mechanical splice connector, some index gel is used between them to form a continuous optical path between fibers and reduce reflecting loss.

mechanical-splicing

Mechanical Splice Termination Defects

Mechanical splice connector is sensitive equipment. And there are many factors that can cause mechanical splice termination failures. However, most of the factors are located at the end face of optical fiber, which may include contamination, glass fragmentation, bad cleave and excessive fiber gap.

Contaminants Between Fiber Ends

Contamination is the usually the first thing to think about when mechanical splice termination failure occurs. There are many ways that contamination can be carried into the fiber termination splices. Generally, the following incorrect operation can cause splice contamination:

1. Use a dirty cleave tool: s the fiber should be cleave before inserted in the connector, a fiber optic cleaves would be used. If a dirty cleave is used, the contamination would be attached on the end face of the fiber optic and be embedded in the connector. Thus, do remember to clean the surfaces thoroughly with alcohol wipes;
2. Wipe the fiber after cleaving;
3. Set the connector or fiber down on a dusty surface;
4. Splice in a heavy airborne dust environment;
5. Cause glass fragments from insertion broken fibers, or applying excessive force;
6. Use polluted index matching gel.

comtamination

Please note that once the contamination is carried inside the mechanical splice connector, especially with the index matching gel, there would be little possibility to clean them out, which means the connector may be scrapped.

Glass Fragmentation

Improper operation like overexertion when inserting the fiber optic into the mechanical splice connector might break the fiber optic and produce glass fragmentation which will cause air gap and optical failure. Or if a broken fiber if inserted, there will also be optical failure. If the glass fragments are embedded in the connector, they cannot be cleaned out and the connector would be scrapped. Thus, be gentle and carefully when splicing the fiber ends.

glass-fragmentation

Bad Cleave

Cleaving the fiber optic is an important step during fiber optic mechanical splicing. The quality of the cleave can decide the quality of the optical splice transmission to some degree. It is not easy to inspect the cleave quality in the field. There are several possibilities that might cause bad cleaves:

1. Use dull or chipped cleave tool blade
2. The bent tongue on the cleave tool concentrated too much bend stress on the fiber
3. Bend the fiber too much or too tight of a radius
4. Apply no tension or insufficient tension to the fiber while cleaving.

bad-cleave

During fiber cleaving, excessive cleave angle can be produced easily and is difficult to be inspected in field. These angles are typically ranging from 1 to 3 degree. Even with precision tool, there might still be cleave angle ranging from 0.5 to 1 degree. The angle is generally produced by bent tongue, fiber bending or insufficient fiber tension.

cleave-angle

Luckily, the cleave angles can be corrected by fine tuning with a VFL (visual fault locator). Rotating the fiber while using a VFL and terminate the connector at the right position.

fiber-gap

Excessive Fiber Gap

Fiber gap is another factor that might cause the fiber optic termination failure. Improper operations that might cause the excessive fiber gap are listed as following:

1. Cleave the fiber without enough lengths;
2. The fiber is not fully inserted, or pulled back during termination;
3. The fiber was not held steady during termination and was pushed back into the fan-out tubing when terminating outdoor cable.

These faults can be corrected on time.

fiber-gap

Conclusion

This article has introduced some factors that will lead to mechanical splice failures in fiber optic termination, and some tips are also included to ensure good splice transmission. After knowing these factors we can see that it is not enough to choose good mechanical splice connector and high quality fiber optic cleaver. Concentrating on proper operations and using right tools for mechanical splice are key to avoid bad results in mechanical splice termination.

EDFA vs Raman Optical Amplifier

Although the fiber loss limits the transmission distance, the need for longer fiber optical transmission link seems never ending. In the pursuit of progress, several kinds of optical amplifiers are published to enhance the signals. Hence, longer fiber optical transmission link with big capacity and fast transmission rate can be achieved. As the EDFA and Raman amplifiers are the two main options for optical signal amplification. which one should be used when designing long fiber optical network? What are the differences of the two optical amplifiers? Which one would perform better to achieve the long fiber optical link? And which one is more cost effective? Let’s talk about this topics.

What’s EDFA Amplifier?

EDFA (Erbium-doped Fiber Amplifier), firstly invented in 1987 for commercial use, is the most deployed optical amplifier in the DWDM system that uses the Erbium-doped fiber as optical amplification medium to directly enhance the signals. It enables instantaneous amplification for signals with multiple wavelengths, basically within two bands. One is the Conventional, or C-band, approximately from 1525 nm to 1565 nm, and the other is the Long, or L-band, approximately from 1570 nm to 1610 nm. Meanwhile, it has two commonly used pumping bands, 980 nm and 1480 nm. The 980nm band has a higher absorption cross-section usually used in low-noise application, while 1480nm band has a lower but broader absorption cross-section that is generally used for higher power amplifiers.

The following figure detailedly illustrates how the EDFA amplifier enhance the signals. When the EDFA amplifier works, it offers a pump laser with 980 nm or 1480 nm. Once the pump laser and the input signals pass through the coupler, they will be multiplexed over the Erbium-doped fiber. Through the interaction with the doping ions, the signal amplification can be finally achieved. This all-optical amplifier not only greatly lowers the cost but highly improves the efficiency for optical signal amplification. In short, the EDFA amplifier is a milestone in the history of fiber optics that can directly amplify signals with multiple wavelengths over one fiber, instead of optical-electrical-optical signal amplification.

EDFA Amplifier Principle

What’s Raman Amplifier?

As the limitations of EDFA amplifier working band and bandwidth became more and more obvious, Raman amplifier was put forward as an advanced optical amplifier that enhances the signals by stimulated Raman scattering. To meet the future-proof network needs, it can provide gain at any wavelength. At present, two kinds of Raman amplifiers are available on the market. One is lumped Raman amplifier that always uses the DCF (dispersion compensation fiber) or high nonlinear fiber as gain medium. Its gain fiber is relatively short, generally within 10 km. The other one is distributed Raman amplifier. Its gain medium is common fiber, which is much longer, generally dozens of kilometers.

When the Raman amplifier is working, the pump laser may be coupled into the transmission fiber in the same direction as the signal (co-directional pumping), in the opposite direction (contra-directional pumping) or in both directions. Then the signals and pump laser will be nonlinearly interacted within the optical fiber for signal amplification. In general, the contra-directional pumping is more common as the transfer of noise from the pump to the signal is reduced, as shown in the following figure.

Raman Amplifier Principle

EDFA vs Raman Optical Amplifier: Which One Wins?

After knowing the basic information of EDFA and Raman optical amplifiers, you must consider that the Raman amplifier performs better for two main reasons. Firstly, it has a wide band, while the band of EDFA is only from 1525 nm to 1565 nm and 1570 nm to 1610 nm. Secondly, it enables distributed amplification within the transmission fiber. As the transmission fiber is used as gain medium in the Raman amplifier, it can increase the length of spans between the amplifiers and regeneration sites. Except for the two advantages mentioned above, Raman amplifier can be also used to extend EDFA.

However, if the Raman amplifier is a better option, why there are still so many users choosing the EDFA amplifiers? Compared with Raman amplifier, EDFA amplifier also features many advantages, such as, low cost, high pump power utilization, high energy conversion efficiency, good gain stability and high gain with little cross-talk. Here offers a table that shows the differences between EDFA and Raman optical amplifiers for your reference.

Property EDFA Amplifier Raman Amplifier
Wavelength (nm) 1525-1565, 1570-1610 All Wavelengths
Gain (dB) > 40 > 25
Noise Figure (dB) 5 5
Pump Power (dBm) 25 > 30
Cost Factor Relatively Low Relatively High

Considering that both EDFA and Raman optical amplifiers have their own advantages, which one should be used for enhancing signals, EDFA amplifier, Raman amplifier or both? It strictly depends on the requirement of your fiber optical link. You should just take the characteristics of your fiber optical link like length, fiber type, attenuation, and channel count into account for network design. When the EDFA amplifier meets the need, you don’t need the Raman amplifier as the Raman amplifier will cost you more.

How to Enhance the Optical Signals for a Long DWDM System?

As we know, the longer the optical transmission distance is, the weaker the optical signals will be. For a long DWDM system, this phenomenon easily causes transmission error or even failure. Under this case, what can we do for a smooth, long DWDM system? The answer is optical signal enhancement. Only by enhancing the optical signals, can the DWDM transmission distance be extended. In this post, we are going to learn two effective solutions, optical amplifier (OA) and dispersion compensation module (DCM) to enhance the signals, for making a smooth, long DWDM system.

Optical Amplifier Solution

We used to utilize repeater to enhance the signals in fiber optics, which should firstly convert the optical signals into an electrical one, amplify the electrical signals, and then convert the electrical signals into an optical one again. Finally, you can get the enhanced optical signals. However, this method of enhancing signals can not only cause more signal loss, but also add unwanted noises in the actual signal. Taking these issues into account, the optical amplifier is more recommendable.

An optical amplifier is a device that enables direct optical signal enhancement or amplification. Its working principle is not so complicated as that of the repeater, while its performance is much higher. From the following figure, we can learn that the original reach of the DWDM system is limited to 80 km due to the signal loss. But with the optical amplifier, the signals are enhanced and the reach can be extended to 160 km. It is really an ideal option to enhance the signals for a long DWDM system.

Optical Amplifier (OA)

At present, there are mainly three major kinds of optical amplifiers, Semiconductor Optical Amplifier (SOA), Doper Fiber Amplifier (DFA), and Raman Amplifier (RA).

Semiconductor Optical Amplifier: as its name implies, the semiconductor in a SOA is used to offer the gain medium. This kind of optical amplifier has a similar structure to the FP laser diode. However, it is designed with anti-reflection elements at the end face that can greatly reduce the end face reflection. Meanwhile, the SOA features small package and low cost that suits for most users to enhance the optical signals.

Doper Fiber Amplifier: in a DFA, the doped optical fiber acts as the gain medium for signal amplification. When the DFA works, the signal to be amplified and a pump laser are multiplexed into the doped fiber. And then the signal is amplified through interaction with the doping ions. The most common DFA is the Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA). Its gain medium is a optical fiber doped with trivalent erbium ions that always enhances the signals near 1550nm wavelength. Undoubtedly, the EDFA is a great choice to enhance the optical signals.

Raman Amplifier: different from the SOA and DFA, the signal in a RA is amplified through the nonlinear interaction between the signal and a pump laser within an optical fiber. In details, two kinds, distributed and lumped Raman amplifier (DRA and LRA) are available on the market. The distributed one multiplexes the pump wavelength with signal wavelength through the transmission fiber to enhance the signals, while the amplification of the lumped one is provided by a dedicated, shorter length of fiber.

(Note: if you want to know more information about these three kinds of optical amplifier, you can take the previous post Optical Amplifier Overview as reference.)

Dispersion Compensation Solution

Apart from signal amplification, we can also use dispersion compensation to enhance the optical signals. Once the dispersion occurs, the signal will be tended to skew due to the different frequencies, which has a negative effect on the quality of signal transmission. At that moment, we use the dispersion compensation module to enhance the skew signal, for achieving a longer transmission distance. As shown in the figure below, the DWDM system is extended to longer than 80 km with the use of 80km passive dispersion compensation module.

Dispersion Compensating Module (DCM)

The dispersion compensation module is an important component for a long fiber optical link. It typically connects to the mid-stage of an OA like EDFA, in the long haul transmission system. Except for the 80km DCM mentioned above, FS.COM also provides other DCM modules that allow long transmission distance extension. The compensation distances can range from 10km to 140 km, as shown in the following table.

Module Type Description Price
FMT10-DCM 10KM Passive Dispersion Compensation Module, Plug-in Type, LC/UPC US$ 430.00
FMT20-DCM 20KM Passive Dispersion Compensation Module, Plug-in Type, LC/UPC US$ 650.00
FMT40-DCM 40KM Passive Dispersion Compensation Module, Plug-in Type, LC/UPC US$ 650.00
FMT60-DCM 60KM Passive Dispersion Compensation Module, Plug-in Type, LC/UPC US$ 1,100.00
FMT80-DCM 80KM Passive Dispersion Compensation Module, Plug-in Type, LC/UPC US$ 1,300.00
FMT100-DCM 100KM Passive Dispersion Compensation Module, Plug-in Type, LC/UPC US$ 1,400.00
FMT140-DCM 140KM Passive Dispersion Compensation Module, Plug-in Type, LC/UPC US$ 1,818.00

Conclusion

The optical amplifier has the ability to directly boost the weak signal, while the dispersion compensation module can reshape the deformed signal and offer a long compensation distance. Considering that the signal strength would become weak as the transmission distance increases, using the optical amplifier and dispersion compensation module to enhance the signals is very necessary when building a long DWDM system.

Economical Solutions for 10G to 40G Connection

With the accelerated development of optical network, there exist more and more capacity-hungry applications in 10G networks today. To solve this problem, experts put forward the 10G to 40G connection as an ideal solution. However, due to the high migration cost, we are prevented from making the migration. Do you also meet this issue? In this paper, it will offer several solutions for making 10G to 40G connections with less cost. Hope you can find one that suits your network.

10G to 40G Connection

Economical Solutions for 10G to 40G Short Connection

How to make a short link between 10G and 40G switches? You can choose the 40GBASE-SR4 QSFP+ module that supports the 40G network at length up to 150 m. Meanwhile, four 10GBASE-SR SFP+ modules are required. So is the MTP-LC harness cable for connecting QSFP+ and four SFP+ modules. In details, FS.COM offers OM3 MTP-LC harness cable supporting 40G connection up to 100 m and OM4 up to150 m. All these equipment mentioned above are available at FS.COM with good prices. For the details, you can learn from the following table.

Product ID Description Price
48558 Customized 40GBASE-SR4 QSFP+ 850nm 150m Transceiver US$ 49.00
48559 Customized 40GBASE-CSR4 QSFP+ 850nm 400m Transceiver US$ 59.00
50000 Customized 10GBASE-SR SFP+ 850nm 300m Transceiver US$ 16.00
31091 8 Fibers OM3 12 Strands MTP-LC Harness Cable US$ 26.00
48356 8 Fibers OM4 12 Strands MTP-LC Harness Cable US$ 28.00
66142 FS S3800-24T4S (24*10/100/1000Base-T+4*10GE) Switch US$ 400.00
29127 FS S5800-48F4S (48*1GE+4*10GE) Switch  US$ 1,700.00

If the link distance is longer than 150 m in your network, 40GBASE-CSR4 QSFP+ module may be a better choice. It can transmit the 40G signals longer, up to 400 m. As for the fiber patch cable, you can still chosse OM3 or OM4 MTP-LC harness cable. In general, the OM3 provided by FS.COM enables the connection up to 300 m, while OM4 up to 400 m. When making a short 10G to 40G migration, you can just choose FS.COM as an ideal fiber optical manufacturer. It offers all the equipment your network needs, including 10G and 40G switches, SFP+ and QSFP+ module and MTP-LC patch cable.

Economical Solutions for 10G to 40G Long Connection

Do you need to make a long 10G to 40G migration? FS.COM also offers several cost effective solutions. For example, up to 1km, 10km, 40km or even 80km 10G to 40G connection solutions. Let’s talk about the detail information of these solutions.

Spending Less for up to 40km 10G to 40G Connection

You can use the 40GBASE-PLRL4 QSFP+ and 10GBASE-LR SFP+ modules to support the 10G to 40G migration up to 1 km. The 40GBASE-LRL4 QSFP+ is also a good choice. As for the fiber patch cable, you can choose the 8 fibers single mode MTP-LC harness cable. Once the distance is longer than 1 km, your are suggested to use the 40GBASE-LR4 QSFP+ and 40GBASE-PLR4 QSFP+ modules. These two kinds of fiber transceiver modules enable the connection at lengths up to 10 km. It the link distance is up to 40 km, then you can use the 40GBASE-ER4 QSFP+ module. Here are the related equipment offered by FS.COM.

Product ID Description Price
48561 Customized 40GBASE-PLRL4 QSFP+ 1310nm 1.4km Transceiver US$ 220.00
48563 Customized 40GBASE-LR4L QSFP+ 1310nm 2km Transceiver US$ 340.00
48564 Customized 40GBASE-LR4 QSFP+ 1310nm 10km Transceiver US$ 340.00
48565 Customized 40GBASE-PLR4 QSFP+ 1310nm 10km Transceiver US$ 380.00
48566 Customized 40GBASE-ER4 QSFP+ 1310nm 40km Transceiver US$ 1,500.00
50004 Customized 10GBASE-LR SFP+ 1310nm 10km DOM Transceiver US$ 34.00
34959 8 Fibers Single Mode 12 Strands MTP-LC Harness Cable US$ 29.00

Spending Less for up to 80km 10G to 40G Connection

Have you ever felt puzzled about whether the 10G to 40G connection can be extended to 80 km? Here you’ll find the answer is yes. How to deploy 80km 10G to 40G connection? You should add the extra equipment, including two DWDM Mux Demux, two WDM transponder OEO (Optical-Electrical-Optical) repeaters and several DWDM SFP+ modules, to your network.

In order to make a smooth 80km 10G to 40G migration, we should add the WDM transponder OEO repeater into the 10G to 40G link. It can not only act as fiber repeater for long distance transmission, but also CWDM/DWDM optical wavelength converter. When the 10G signals pass through the WDM transponder OEO repeater, it will be converted into several DWDM singals. Then you should use the DWDM Mux Demux to multiplex, transmit and demultiplex them. And finally another WDM transponder OEO repeater is required to convert the DWDM singals into 10G signals again. Hence, you can finally achieve the up to 80km 10G to 40G connection. As for the equipment the network requires, you can also order them from FS.COM with good prices.

Product ID Description Price
65909 16 Channels C25-C40 Dual Fiber DWDM Mux Demux US$ 1,100.00
30515 4 Channels Multi-Rate WDM Converter (Transponder) US$ 820.00
64426 Customized C25-C40 10G DWDM SFP+ 80km Transceiver US$ 420.00

Conclusion

FS.COM is an ideal fiber optical manufacturer that offers very cost effective solutions for 10G to 40G connection. These solution can support not only the short 10G to 40G migration at lengths up to 400 m, but also the long migration with reach 1km, 10km or even up to 40km. Moreover, if you want to extend the 10G to 40G connection up to 80 km, you can order the extra equipment like DWDM Mux Demux, WDM transponder OEO repeaters and DWDM SFP+ modules from FS.COM with good price. All the equipment mentioned above have been tested to assure 100% compatibility.

Dual-Fiber or Single-Fiber CWDM Mux Demux for Higher Capacity Need?

What would you do if your network capacity can not meet your requirement? Will you put more fibers or update your system? In fact, these two methods are not very recommendable. Why? As your fiber cabling infrastructure is limited for adding fibers and high cost is required for upgrading system, these two methods are unworkable or too expensive. Under this condition, using a pair of CWDM Mux Demux to build a CWDM system with higher capacity is highly recommended. The CWDM Mux Demux is regarded as a key component for a CWDM system, as shown below. It can be simply divided into two types, dual-fiber and single-fiber CWDM Mux Demux. To meet the higher capacity need of your system, this post will mainly introduce the basic knowledge of the dual-fiber and single-fiber CWDM Mux Demux and guide you find a suitable fiber optic Mux Demux for building your CWDM system.

CWDM Mux Demux for Connecting Cisco Nexus 9396PX and FS S5850-3252Q

Dual-Fiber CWDM Mux Demux

Dual-Fiber CWDM Mux Demux is a passive device multiplexing and demultiplexing the wavelengths for expanding network capacity, which must work in pairs for bidirectional transmission over dual fiber. It enables up to 18 channels for transmitting and receiving 18 kinds of signals, with the wavelengths from 1270 nm to 1610 nm. The CWDM transceiver inserted into the fiber optic Mux port should have the same wavelength as that of Mux port to finish the signal transmission. For instance, the two reliable 4 channel CWDM Mux Demux showed below use four wavelengths, 1510 nm, 1530 nm, 1550 nm and 1570 nm, their corresponding CWDM transceivers also features the same wavelengths.

Dual-Fiber CWDM Mux Demux

When the connection above works, the left 4 channel dual-fiber CWDM Mux Demux uses 1510 nm, 1530 nm, 1550 nm and 1570 nm for transmitting 4 kinds of signals through the first fiber, while the right 4 channel dual-fiber CWDM Mux Demux features 1510 nm, 1530 nm, 1550 nm and 1570 nm for receiving the signals. On the other hand, the transmission from the right to left use the same wavelengths to carry another 4 signals through the second fiber, finally achieving the bidirectional signal transmission.

Single-Fiber CWDM Mux Demux

Single-fiber CWDM Mux Demux should be also used in pairs. One multiplexes the several signals, transmits them through a single fiber together, while another one at the opposite side of the fiber demultiplexes the integrated signals. Considering that the single-fiber CWDM Mux Demux transmitting and receiving the integrated signals through the same fiber, the wavelengths for RX and TX of the same port on the Single-fiber CWDM Mux Demux should be different. Hence, if the 4 channel single-fiber CWDM Mux Demux is used for CWDM system, 8 wavelengths are required, the twice time as that of the dual-fiber one.

Single-Fiber CWDM Mux Demux

The working principle of single-fiber CWDM Mux Demux is more complicated, compared to the dual-fiber one. As shown in the figure above, the transmission from the left to right uses 1470 nm, 1510 nm, 1550 nm and 1590 nm to multiplex the signals, transmit them through the single fiber, and using the same four wavelengths to demultiplex the signals, while the opposite transmission carries signals with 1490 nm, 1530 nm, 1570 nm and 1610 nm over the same fiber. As for the wavelength of the transceiver, it should use the same wavelength as TX of the port on the CWDM Mux Demux. For example, when the port of a single-fiber CWDM Mux Demux has 1470 nm for TX and 1490 nm for RX, then a 1470nm CWDM transceiver should be inserted.

Dual-Fiber vs. Single-Fiber CWDM Mux Demux

We always consider whether an item is worth buying according to its performance and cost. In view of the performance, the single-fiber CWDM Mux Demux can carry signals through only one fiber supporting fast speed transmission and saving the fiber resource, while the dual-fiber one requires two fibers for transmission with a higher reliability. Besides, using single-fiber CWDM Mux Demux can be easier to install. In view of the cost, the single-fiber CWDM Mux Demux is much more expensive than the dual-fiber. And the simplex fiber cable also costs higher than duplex fiber cable. Thereby, the whole cost for building single-fiber CWDM system must be much more higher. Like the two sides of the same coin, both the dual-fiber and single-fiber CWDM Mux Demux have their own advantages and disadvantages. Which one you should choose just depends on your system needs and your budget for building the CWDM system.

Why Not Use Raman Amplifier to Extend the CWDM Network Reach?

In comparison with the long-haul DWDM network that uses the thermo-electric coolers to stabilize the laser emissions essential, the CWDM network is a more economical solution that features wider wavelength spacing, allowing the wavelength fluctuation of uncooled directly modulated laser diodes (DMLs). But on the other hand, the CWDM network exists the limitation for the uncooled DMLs’ output power and the additional loss of CWDM Mux Demux and optical add/drop modules. These make the CWDM loss budget limited to < 30 dB and the CWDM reach within 80 km. Moreover, when the insertion loss of the dark fiber is higher than our expectation, a decreasing transmission distance may occur. Hence, here offers the Raman amplifier (see the following figure) to extend the CWDM network reach, as an ideal solution.

Raman Amplifier

What’s Raman Amplifier?

Raman amplifier, also referred to as RA, is a kind of optical fiber amplifier based on Raman gain, which is used for boosting optical signals and finally achieving a longer transmission distance. Different from the erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) and semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA), the RA intensifies the signals through the nonlinear interaction between the signal and a pump laser within an optical fiber, as shown in the figure below.

Raman amplifier working principle

At present, two kinds of Raman amplifiers are available on the market, the distributed and lumped Raman amplifiers. As for the distributed Raman amplifier (DRA), it uses the optical fiber as the gain medium to multiplex the pump wavelength with signal wavelength, so that the optical signals can be boosted. With regard to the lumped one (LRA), it requires a shorter length of optical fiber for the signal amplification. Both of these two Raman amplifiers are suitable for amplifying CWDM signals and extending the CWDM network reach.

Why Raman Amplifier Is Used for Amplifying CWDM Signals?

As we know, the EDFA and SOA are able to strengthen the CWDM signals. But why it is not recommendable for the CWDM network? In fact, they can not perform as well as the RA in the CWDM network for some limitations, which can be learned from the following figure.

Optical Fiber Amplifier Comparison

The figures above shows various gain bandwidths of these three optical fiber amplifiers for CWDM network, but only the gain bandwidth the RA offers meet the CWDM network demands. To fully serve the CWDM network, the RA usually optimizes the pumping lightwave spectrum to extend the usable optical bandwidth. As for the EDFA, its gain bandwidth can not match well with the channel spacing of the CWDM network requirements. And for the SOA, although it offers the gain bandwidth fit enough for the CWDM network, it is still not suggested for the inherent technical limitations. In details, the SOA has a relatively low saturation power but a high noise figure and polarization sensitivity, compared to other two amplifiers. Hence, the RA is undoubtedly the best choice to strengthen the CWDM signals and lengthen the CWDM network reach.

How Does Raman Amplifier Benefit CWDM Network?

In order to study the benefit of RA for the CWDM network, here offers two sets of research data about the receiver sensitivity, for a bit-error rate (BER) of 10-9 using a pseudo-random bit sequence (PRBS) with a 231-1 word length.

Raman Amplifier Benefits for CWDM Network

From the figure above, we can learn that the first set of data is resulted from the four channel CWDM network without use of the RA, while the second utilizes the RA. In order to check whether the Raman amplifier benefits the CWDM network, we can take the data of 100km CWDM transmission through singlemode fiber (SMF) as an example. The power penalty of the transmission with a RA are separately -34.4 dBm, -34.2 dBm, -33.2 dBm and -32.3 dBm. It is 0.3 dBm better than the power penalty of the transmission without a RA, at least. Except that, we can also learn that the CWDM network with a RA can transmit the signals through the SMF at lengths up to 150m without any repeater stations, while the network without the RA cannot.

Conclusion

The Raman amplifier is an ideal alternative to the repeater in CWDM network, for intensifying the CWDM signals and extending the CWDM network reach. By using the Raman amplifier, the loss budget of the CWDM network can be increased, which finally achieves a longer transmission. Meanwhile, from the view of cost, the RA and the repeater are almost the same, but the repeater stations should cost much more for constructing and maintaining. Moreover, using the RA in the CWDM network can also gain the loss compensation of OADM. Then, why not use Raman amplifier to extend your CWDM network reach?

How to Deploy a Single-Fiber CWDM Network?

Generally, CWDM network designed for expanding the network capacity can be basically divided into two types, dual-fiber and single-fiber CWDM network, according to the optical fiber transmission line. For the dual-fiber CWDM network, its working principle is easy to acquire, which uses the same wavelength for transmitting and receiving each pair of dual-way signals over the duplex fiber cable. However, for the single-fiber CWDM network, the working principle is highly complex that specially works with different wavelengths for transmitting and receiving each pair of dual-way signals over only one fiber. To better understand the single-fiber CWDM network, here will mainly illustrate how does a single-fiber CWDM network work and introduce the components and installation steps for fast deploying a single-fiber CWDM network.

Introduction of Single-Fiber CWDM Network

Single-fiber CWDM network is a kind of WDM network, designed for greatly expanding the network capacity by combining and transmitting several pairs of dual-way signals with different wavelengths over a single fiber, instead of putting more fibers for lager dual-way data transmission need. When the single-fiber CWDM network runs, there are two single-fiber CWDM Mux Demux using two different wavelengths for each pair of dual-way transmission. In details, if the single-fiber CWDM Mux Demux has four channels for dual-way data transmission, then eight different wavelengths divided into four pairs are required for the four channels, as shown in the figure below. To make a comparison, a 4 channel dual-fiber CWDM Mux Demux only needs four different wavelengths for the dual-way transmission.

 4 Channel CWDM Network

From the figure above, we can learn that a 4 channel CWDM network needs two reliable 4 channel CWDM Mux Demux connected by a single fiber and four pairs of CWDM transceivers with eight different wavelengths connected to the CWDM Mux Demux, achieving the dual-way transmission. Obviously, each port of the two CWDM Mux Demux for the same channel has the complete reversed TX and RX. Just taking the first channel as example, the first port of the CWDM Mux Demux on the left side uses 1470nm for TX and 1490nm for RX, while the first port on the right side uses 1490nm for TX and 1470nm for RX, reversely. Hence, each pair of dual-way signals with two different wavelengths will be smoothly transmitted and received. To better understand how does the single fiber CWDM network work, the following table also lists the four pairs of wavelengths for the TX and RX ports of the two CWDM Mux Demux, which are also totally reversed.

TX and RX for Single-Fiber CWDM Mux Demux

Basic Components for a Single-Fiber CWDM Network

When deploy the single-fiber CWDM network, we should prepare two single-fiber CWDM Mux Demux, two switches, a rack-mount chassis, several pairs of CWDM transceivers and singlemode simplex patch cables that are the basic and essential components for a single-fiber CWDM network. The two switches separately act as the Local unit and Remote unit for the CWDM network, while the CWDM Mux Demux is the main unit of the network that should be fixed and held on the rack-mount chassis and then connected to the switch. To finish the connection between the CWDM Mux Demux and switch, we should insert the CWDM transceivers into the ports of CWDM Mux Demux and use the singlemode simplex patch cables to connect CWDM transceivers with the switch.

Basic Components for a Single-Fiber CWDM Network

Steps for Single-Fiber CWDM Network Deployment

To fast deploy a single-fiber CWDM network, here offers the step by step installation procedure.

Step A: Install the rack-mount chassis in a standard 19-inch cabinet or rack.

Step B: Align the single-fiber CWDM Mux Demux with the chassis shelf, slightly push it to the shelf cavity. And tighten the captive screws once the CWDM Mux Demux is totally inserted.

Step C: Plug the CWDM transceivers into the switch. And also, connect these CWDM transceivers to the corresponding ports on CWDM Mux Demux according to the wavelengths of the TX and RX, with the use of singlemode simplex patch cable.

Step D: Utilize the singlemode simplex patch cable to connect the two CWDM Mux Demux and test the performance of the whole single-fiber CWDM network.

Installation Steps for Single-Fiber CWDM Network

Conclusion

Single-fiber CWDM network is a cost-effective and easy-to-deploy solution that can not only take full use of the available fiber bandwidth in your network but also greatly expand your network capacity. If you are hesitating over upgrading your system for bigger capacity, buy CWDM multi-channel Mux/Demux, CWDM transceivers and other basic components to deploy the single-fiber CWDM network would be a better choice for you.