Data Center Infrastructure Basics and Management Solutions

Data center infrastructure refers to all the physical components in a data center environment. These physical components play a vital role in the day-to-day operations of a data center. Hence, data center management challenges are an urgent issue that IT departments need to pay attention to. On the one hand, it is to improve the energy efficiency of the data center; on the other hand, it is to know about the operating performance of the data center in real-time ensuring its good working condition and maintaining enterprise development.

Data Center Infrastructure Basics

The standard for data center infrastructure is divided into four tiers, each of which consists of different facilities. They mainly include cabling systems, power facilities, cooling facilities, network infrastructure, storage infrastructure, and computing resources. There are roughly two types of infrastructure inside a data center: the core components and IT infrastructure. Network infrastructure, storage infrastructure, and computing resources belong to the former, while cooling equipment, power, redundancy, etc. belong to the latter.

Core Components

Network, storage, and computing systems are vital infrastructures for data centers to achieve sharing access to applications and data, providing data centers with shared access to applications and data. Also, they are the core components of data centers. Network Infrastructure Datacenter network infrastructure is a combination of network resources, consisting of switches, routers, load balancing, analytics, etc., to facilitate the storage and processing of applications and data. Modern data center networking architectures, through using full-stack networking and security virtualization platforms that support a rich set of data services, can achieve connecting everything from VMs, containers, and bare-metal applications, while enabling centralized management and fine-grained security controls. Storage Infrastructure Datacenter storage is a general term for the tools, technologies and processes for designing, implementing, managing and monitoring storage infrastructure and resources in data centers, mainly referring to the equipment and software technologies that implement data and application storage in data center facilities. These include hard drives, tape drives and other forms of internal and external storage and backup management software utilities external storage facilities/solutions. Computing Resources A data center meter is a memory and processing power to run applications, usually provided by high-end servers. In the edge computing model, the processing and memory used to run applications on servers may be virtualized, physical, distributed among containers or distributed among remote nodes.

IT Infrastructure

As data centers become critical to enterprise IT operations, it is equally important to keep them running efficiently. When designing data center infrastructure, it is necessary to evaluate its physical environment, including cabling system, power system, cooling system to ensure the security of the physical environment of the data center. Cabling Systems The integrated cabling is an important part of data center cable management, supporting the connection, intercommunication and operation of the entire data center network. The system is usually composed of copper cables, optical cables, connectors and wiring equipment. The application of the data center integrated wiring system has the characteristics of high density, high performance, high reliability, fast installation, modularization, future-oriented, and easy application. Power Systems Datacenter digital infrastructure requires electricity to operate. Even an interruption of a fraction of a second will result in a significant impact. Hence, power infrastructure is one of the most critical components of a data center. The data center power chain starts at the substation and ends up through building transformers, switches, uninterruptible power supplies, power distribution units, and remote power panels to racks and servers. Cooling Systems Data center servers generate a lot of heat while running. Based on this characteristic, cooling is critical to data center operations, aiming to keep systems online. The amount of power each rack can keep cool by itself places a limit on the amount of power a data center can consume. Generally, each rack can allow the data center to operate at an average 5-10 kW cooling density, but some may be higher.
data center

Data Center Infrastructure Management Solutions

Due to the complexity of IT equipment in a data center, the availability, reliability, and maintenance of its components require more attention. Efficient data center operations can be achieved through balanced investments in facilities and accommodating equipment. Energy Usage Monitoring Equipment Traditional data centers lack the energy usage monitoring instruments and sensors required to comply with ASHRAE standards and collect measurement data for use in calculating data center PUE. It results in a poor monitoring environment for the power system of the data center. One measure is to install energy monitoring components and systems on power systems to measure data center energy efficiency. Enterprise teams can implement effective strategies by the measure to balance overall energy usage efficiency and effectively monitor the energy usage of all other nodes. Cooling Facilities Optimization Independent computer room air conditioning units used in traditional data centers often have separate controls and set points, resulting in excessive operation due to temperature and humidity adjustments. It’s a good way for helping servers to achieve cooling by creating hot-aisle/cold-aisle layouts to maximize the flow of cold air to the equipment intakes and the hot exhaust air from the equipment racks. The creation of hot or cold aisles can eliminate the mixing of hot and cold air by adding partitions or ceilings. CRAC Efficiency Improvement Packaged DX air conditioners likely compose the most common type of cooling equipment for smaller data centers. These units are often described as CRAC units. There are, however, there are several ways to improve the energy efficiency of the cooling system employing DX units. Indoor CRAC units are available with a few different heat rejection options.
  • – As with rooftop units, adding evaporative spray can improve the efficiency of air-cooled CRAC units.
  • – A pre-cooling water coil can be added to the CRAC unit upstream of the evaporator coil. When ambient conditions allow the condenser water to be cooled to the extent that it provides direct cooling benefits to the air entering the CRAC unit, the condenser water is diverted to the pre-cooling coil. This will reduce or sometimes eliminate the need for compressor-based cooling for the CRAC unit.
DCIM Data center infrastructure management is the combination of IT and operations to manage and optimize the performance of data center infrastructure within an organization. DCIM tools help data center operators monitor, measure, and manage the utilization and energy consumption of data center-related equipment and facility infrastructure components, effectively improving the relationship between data center buildings and their systems. DCIM enables bridging of information across organizational domains such as data center operations, facilities, and IT to maximize data center utilization. Data center operators create flexible and efficient operations by visualizing real-time temperature and humidity status, equipment status, power consumption, and air conditioning workloads in server rooms. Preventive Maintenance In addition to the above management and operation solutions for infrastructure, unplanned maintenance is also an aspect to consider. Unplanned maintenance typically costs 3-9 times more than planned maintenance, primarily due to overtime labor costs, collateral damage, emergency parts, and service calls. IT teams can create a recurring schedule to perform preventive maintenance on the data center. Regularly checking the infrastructure status and repairing and upgrading the required components promptly can keep the internal infrastructure running efficiently, as well as extend the lifespan and overall efficiency of the data center infrastructure. Article Source: Data Center Infrastructure Basics and Management Solutions Related Articles: Data Center Migration Steps and Challenges What Are Data Center Tiers?

Data Center Network Security Threats and Solutions


Data center security includes physical security and virtual security. Data center virtual security is actually data center network security,it refers to the various security precautions that are taken to maintain the operational agility of the infrastructure and data. Data center network security threats have become more and more rampant, and enterprises need to find countermeasures to protect sensitive information and prevent data vulnerabilities. We will discuss the data center cyber attacks and solutions.

What Are the Main Data Center Networking Threats?

Data center network is the most valuable and visible asset of storage organizations, while the data center networks, DNS, database, and email servers have become the number one target for cybercriminals, hacktivists, and state-sponsored attackers. Regardless of attackers’ purpose and what they are seeking financial gain, competitive intelligence, or notoriety, they are using a range of cyber technology weapons to attack data centers. The following are 5 top data center network threats.

DDoS attack

Servers are prime targets of DDoS attack designed to disrupt and disable essential internet services. Service availability is critical to a positive customer experience. DDoS attacks, however, can directly threaten availability, resulting in loss of business revenue, customers, and reputation. From 2011 to 2013, the average size of DDoS attacks soared from 4.7 Gbps to 10 Gbps. What’s worse, there has also been a staggering increase in the average number of packets per second during a typical DDoS attack. This proved that the rapid growth of DDoS attacks is enough to disable most standard network equipment. Attackers can amplify the scale and intensity of DDoS attacks primarily by exploiting Web, DNS, and NTP servers, which requires enterprises to do a good job of network monitoring at all times.

Web Application Attack

Web applications are vulnerable to a range of attacks, such as SQL injection, cross-site scripting, cross-site request forgery, etc. Attackers attempt to break into applications and steal data for profit, resulting in enterprises’ data vulnerabilities. According to the 2015 Trustwave Global Security Report, approximately 98% of applications have or have had vulnerabilities. Attackers are increasingly targeting vulnerable web servers and installing malicious code to turn them into a DDoS attack source. Enterprises need proactive defenses to stop web attacks and “virtual patching” of data vulnerabilities.

DNS Attacks

DNS infrastructure is also vulnerable to DDoS attacks or other threats. It is turned into a target of data center cyber attacks for two reasons. First, attackers can prevent Internet users from accessing the Internet by taking DNS servers offline through a variety of means. If an attacker disables DNS servers of ISP, they can block everything the ISP does to users and Internet services. Second, attackers can also amplify DDoS attacks by exploiting DNS servers. Attackers spoof the IP addresses of their real targets, instruct DNS servers to recursively query many DNS servers or send a flood of responses to victims. This allows the DNS server to directly control the victim’s network of DNS traffic. Even if the DNS server is not the ultimate target for attackers, it still causes data center downtime and outages due to DNS reflection attacks.

SSL Blind Spot Exploitation

Many applications support SSL, however, it is surprising that SSL encryption is also a way that attackers can exploit for network intrusion. Although decrypt SSL traffic is decrypted by firewalls, intrusion prevention and threat prevention products, etc., there are some security implications for data vulnerabilities due to these products’ inability to keep up with the growing demand for SSL encryption. For example, the conversion from 1024-bit to 2048-bit SSL keys requires about 6.3 times the processing power to decrypt. This case shows that security applications are gradually breaking down under the decryption requirements of increasing SSL certificate key lengths. For this reason, attackers can easily exploit this defense blind spot for intrusion.

Authentication Attacks

Applications often use authentication to authenticate users, allowing application owners to restrict access to authorized users. But for convenience, many people perform a single authentication. This makes it easy for attackers to use password cracking tools to brute force. Hackers will crack lists of stolen passwords, and even password hashes, and use them to break into other online accounts. As a result, enterprises centrally manage authentication services and prevent users from repeating failed login attempts.
data center

Data Center Virtual Security Solutions

Network security defenses in the data center are imperative. In view of the data vulnerabilities and network security risks caused by the five major data center network security threats, here are some defense solutions.
  • Prevent vulnerabilities: Deploy IPS to protect and patch frequently vulnerable systems and applications. IPS can also detect exploits targeting DNS infrastructure or attempts to use DNS to evade security protections.
  • Network segmentation: Network segmentation implemented effectively enables preventing lateral movement and achieves least privilege access under a zero-trust security model.
  • Deploying application and API protection: The solution to mitigate the OWASP top 10 risks for web applications is to use web and API security applications. Also, data centers can install firewalls and intrusion detection systems (IDS), to help businesses monitor and traffic inspect before it reaches the internal network.
  • Defense against DDoS: Use on-prem and cloud DDoS protections to mitigate DDoS threats.
  • Prevent credential theft: Deploy anti-phishing protection for users to prevent credential theft attacks.
  • Securing supply chains: Detect and prevent sophisticated supply chain attacks using AI and ML-backed threat prevention, as well as EDR and XDR technologies.
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Cyberattacks also have a profound impact on data center network security. Enterprises should prepare defense solutions for data centers to ensure data security. The best practices above can also help enterprises gain relevant information about how their data center networks are operating, allowing the IT team to enhance the virtual security of their data centers while maintaining physical security. Article source: Data Center Network Security Threats and Solutions Related Articles: Five Ways to Ensure Data Center Physical Security What Is Data Center Virtualization?

Why Green Data Center Matters


Green data centers appear in the concept of enterprise construction, due to the continuous growth of new data storage requirements and the steady enhancement of green environmental protection awareness. Newly retained data must be protected, cooled, and transferred efficiently. This means that the huge energy demands of data centers present challenges in terms of cost and sustainability, and enterprises are increasingly concerned about the energy demands of their data centers. It can be seen that sustainable and renewable energy resources have become the development trend of green data centers.

Green Data Center Is a Trend

A green data center is a facility similar to a regular data center that hosts servers to store, manage, and disseminate data. It is designed to minimize environmental impact by providing maximum energy efficiency. Green data centers have the same characteristics as typical data centers, but the internal system settings and technologies can effectively reduce energy consumption and carbon footprints for enterprises.

The internal construction of a green data center requires the support of a series of services, such as cloud services, cable TV services, Internet services, colocation services, and data protection security services. Of course, many enterprises or carriers have equipped their data centers with cloud services. Some enterprises may also need to rely on other carriers to provide Internet and related services.

According to market trends, the global green data center market is worth around $59.32 billion in 2021 and is expected to grow at a CAGR of 23.5% in the future to 2026. It also shows that the transition to renewable energy sources is accelerating because of the growth of green data centers.

As the growing demand for data storage drives the modernization of data centers, it also places higher demands on power and cooling systems. On the one hand, data centers need to convert non-renewable energy into electricity to generate electricity, resulting in rising electricity costs; on the other hand, some enterprises need to complete the construction of cooling facilities and server cleaning through a lot of water, all of which are ample opportunities for the green data center market. For example, Facebook and Amazon continue to expand their businesses, which has also increased the need for data storage of global companies. These enterprises need a lot of data to complete the analysis of potential customers, but these data processing needs will require a lot of energy. Therefore, the realization of green data centers has become an urgent need for enterprises to solve these problems, and this can also bring more other benefits to enterprises.

Green Data Center Benefits

The green data center concept has grown rapidly in the process of enterprise data center development. Many businesses prefer alternative energy solutions for their data centers, which can bring many benefits to the business. The benefits of green data centers are as follows.

Energy Saving

Green data centers are designed not only to conserve energy, but also to reduce the need for expensive infrastructure to handle cooling and power needs. Sustainable or renewable energy is an abundant and reliable source of energy that can significantly reduce power usage efficiency (PUE). The reduction of PUE enables enterprises to use electricity more efficiently. Green data centers can also use colocation services to decrease server usage, lower water consumption, and reduce the cost of corporate cooling systems.

Cost Reduction

Green data centers use renewable energy to reduce power consumption and business costs through the latest technologies. Shutting down servers that are being upgraded or managed can also help reduce energy consumption at the facility and control operating costs.

Environmental Sustainability

Green data centers can reduce the environmental impact of computing hardware, thereby creating data center sustainability. The ever-increasing technological development requires the use of new equipment and technologies in modern data centers, and the power consumption of these new server devices and virtualization technologies reduces energy consumption, which is environmentally sustainable and brings economic benefits to data center operators.

data center

Enterprise Social Image Enhancement

Today, users are increasingly interested in solving environmental problems. Green data center services help businesses resolve these issues quickly without compromising performance. Many customers already see responsible business conduct as a value proposition. Enterprises, by meeting compliance, regulatory requirements and regulations of the corresponding regions through the construction of green data centers, improve the image of their own social status.

Reasonable Use of Resources

In an environmentally friendly way, green data centers can allow enterprises to make better use of various resources such as electricity, physical space, and heat, integrating the internal facilities of the data center. It promotes the efficient operation of the data center while achieving rational utilization of resources.

5 Ways to Create a Green Data Center

After talking about the benefits of a green data center, then how to build a green data center. Here are a series of green data center solutions.

  • Virtualization extension: Enterprises can build a virtualized computer system with the help of virtualization technology, and run multiple applications and operating systems through fewer servers, thereby realizing the construction of green data centers.
  • Renewable energy utilization: Enterprises can opt for solar panels, wind turbines or hydroelectric plants that can generate energy to power backup generators without any harm to the environment.
  • Enter eco mode: Using an Alternating current USPs is one way to switch eco mode. This setup can significantly improve data center efficiency and PUE. Alternatively, enterprises can reuse equipment, which not only saves money, but also eliminates unnecessary emissions from seeping into the atmosphere.
  • Optimized cooling: Data center infrastructure managers can introduce simple and implementable cooling solutions, such as deploying hot aisle/cold aisle configurations. Data centers can further accelerate cooling output by investing in air handlers and coolers, and installing economizers that draw outside air from the natural environment to build green data center cooling systems.
  • DCIM and BMS systems: DCIM software and BMS software can help data centers managers identify and document ways to use more efficient energy, helping data centers become more efficient and achieve sustainability goals.


Data center sustainability means reducing energy/water consumption and carbon emissions to offset increased computing and mobile device usage to keep business running smoothly. The development of green data centers has become an imperative development trend, and it also caters to the green goals of global environmental protection. As a beneficiary, enterprises can not only save operating costs, but also effectively reduce energy consumption. This is also an important reason for the construction of green data centers.

Article Source: Why Green Data Center Matters

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Data Center Infrastructure Basics and Management Solutions

What Is a Data Center?

How to Use A KVM Switch (Keyboard, Video, Mouse Switch)

With the number of network equipment grows, data centers are facing the pressure of managing multiple computers and networking devices efficiently. If you need to control multiple computers, you need to buy sets of keyboard, monitor, and mouse. This is not the most effective management considering space-consuming and budget. Also keeping a row of large CRT monitors with keyboards and mouse may be problematic. Thus the KVM switch is invented to solve the problems by monitoring and controlling the devices locally and remotely. So what is a KVM switch? How to use a KVM switch? This article will explain it to you.

What Is A KVM Switch?

The KVM switch is a hardware device that allows users to manage multiple computers from a single keyboard, video display monitor and mouse. By pressing the button on the KVM switch, the administrator can monitoring all the devices locally and remotely. Using KVM switches in data centers not only saves administrators the cost of buying a dedicated keyboard, monitor and mouse for each computer but also saves space in the server room and limit cable clutter. It helps streamlines your work flow and increases your efficiency. Due to its versatile advantages, it is widely used in home offices, laboratories, small and medium-sized enterprises.

alt How to use a KVM Switch

How KVM Switch Works?

The KVM switch can control a number of computers and switch from one computer to another simply by pressing a button on the keyboard. Users can connect their computers to KVM switches via Cat5, Cat5e, and Cat6 patch cables or the specific KVM switch cable kits. Then, connect the keyboard, monitor, and mouse console to the KVM switch. If your switch is equipped with a console, you can skip this step. It mainly uses a keyboard consisting of a keyboard, mouse, and display to securely access computers, servers, and devices from local or remote users, and to control the network for local or remote users.

alt How to use a KVM Switch

How to Use A KVM Switch?

There are generally three types of switching modes of the KVM switch for us to operate — button switching, OSD menu switching, and shortcut key switching. The button switching is to use the physical button on the KVM, and the corresponding server can be selected by directly pressing the physical button. The OSD menu switching is the KVM internal software. You can use the mouse to select the corresponding server to switch according to the server name displayed on the menu. The shortcut key switching is generally combination keys, such as Ctrl and a data key, 1, 2, 3, 4 four servers, select Ctrl+1 to select the first server, simple and convenient.

alt How to use a KVM Switch

Which KVM Switch to Buy?

When purchasing a KVM switch, the choice usually depends on the number of PCs you need to control. KVM switch with only a few ports is usually more convenient to use without the need to install additional software. They can also be easily managed using hot keys or switch keys. In addition, some of the KVM switches with only a few ports do not even require an external power supply. Due to space needs, advanced KVM switches with multiple ports can be installed in a server rack using only 1U or 2U in space. These KVM switches can also use IP networks to manage power point outlets and control the startup or shutdown of PCs.


KVM switches have become a popular device in data centers with the advantages of space and cost savings, energy efficiency and economy. Thanks for having KVM switches, the server room can be accessed at any time without geographical restrictions. Now that you know how to use a KVM switch and KVM switch buying advice, you can choose a suitable one for your network. FS has high-quality products and professional technical team to provide the ideal solution for your work environment construction. You can have a visit to

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FS.COM N8000-32Q vs Quanta 5032-LY6 40G Spine Switch

With the disaggregation of software and hardware, bare metal switches are attracting more and more attention. It is undeniable that bare metal switches bring a range of benefits to consumers. FS N-series bare metal switches combine with the latest R&D technology, giving consumers an excellent experience when they are introduced to the market. This article will introduce 40G spine switch and make a comparison to provide a reference for your choice.

Why Do You Need a 40G Spine Switch?

As virtualization goes popular, leaf-spine has become the mainstream of data center network deployment. With 40G spine switch, the limitations of traditional three-tier architectures can be overcome and a fast, scalable, predictable, and efficient communication architecture for data center switches can be created.

The Outline of 40G Leaf/Spine Switch

The leaf/spine switch consists of two layers: the leaf layer and the spine layer. The spine layer is made up of switches that perform routing. The leaf layer involves access switch that connects to the endpoints. In a leaf-spine architecture, each leaf switch is interconnected with each spine switch. The number of spine switches is limited to the number of uplink ports on the leaf. With the design, any server can communicate with any other server through one interconnection switch path between any two leaf switches. The architecture can be non-blocking by providing sufficient bandwidth from each leaf switch to spine switches.

altFS.COM N8000-32Q vs Quanta 5032-LY6 40G Spine Switch

The Outline of FS.COM 40G Spine Switch

FS.COM N8000-32Q 32 port switch is a TOR (Top-of-Rack) or Spine switch that delivers a rich choice of interface speed and density, which can be deployed in a wide range of open networking solutions including large-scale layer 2 and layer 3 cloud designs, overlay networks, virtualized or traditional enterprise data center networks. Combined with Cumulus Linux network operating system, FS.COM N8000-32Q switch allows customers to deploy fast, high-capacity fabrics, simplified network automation and consistent tools, and help reduce operational and capital expenditures. With support for advanced features such as MLAG, VxLAN, and SNMP, FS.COM N8000-32Q is ideal for traditional or fully virtualized data centers. FS.COM N8000-32Q supports current and future data center requirements, including an x86-based control plane for easier integration of automation tools and compatibility with SDN via OpenFlow 1.3.11. In addition, it also supports advanced hardware-based VXLAN feature to support over 16M virtual networks.

altFS.COM N8000-32Q vs Quanta 5032-LY6 40G Spine Switch

The Outline of Quanta 40G Spine Switch

Quanta 5032-LY6 is a network switch that supports 32 QSFP + (10/40GbE speed) ports in a compact 1U form factor. By leveraging the new generation commercial silicon chips, Quanta 5032-LY6 is a high-performance, high-density network switch for deploying data center infrastructure. With ONIE (Open Network Installation Environment) pre-loaded on Quanta 5032-LY6, it provides flexibility and allows choice of network operating system supported by the ONIE installer. The CPU board design allows Quanta 5032-LY6 to be installed with different CPU to meet the software requirement. This provides a flexible installation process and faster response to the changing business demands. Quanta 5032-LY6 can offer higher performance, higher availability, lower latency, and better maintainability.

altFS.COM N8000-32Q vs Quanta 5032-LY6 40G Spine Switch

FS vs Quanta 40G Spine Switch

In general, FS.COM N8000-32Q and Quanta 5032-LY6 40G spine switch both can satisfy the basic needs of consumers during operation. But they vary in the choice and configuration of different materials. What are the subtle differences between them? Let’s take a look at the chart below.

Names FS.COM N8000-32Q Quanta 5032-LY6
Ports 32 x 40GE QSFP+ 32 QSFP+ ports
Management Port 1 x Serial Console and

1 x MGMT

1 RJ-45 out-of-band management port (10/100/1000M)
Switching Capacity 2.56Tbps full-duplex 2560Gbps
Forwarding Performance 1.44 Bpps 1904Mpps
Operating System Cumulus® Linux® OS ONIE
Switch Chip Trident 2 BCM56850 Broadcom StrataXGS Trident2
CPU Intel Rangeley C2538 2.4Ghz 4-core Intel Atom Processors
Latency 480ns <600ns
Dimensions (WxDxH) 433.8 x 520 x 43.8 mm 44x435x483mm
Rack Space 1U 1U

How to Choose Between Them?

In addition to what we know about performance and brand reputation, we should also consider three other important factors. First, the price. Quanta 5032-LY6 is priced at $14,200, while FS.COM N8000-32Q offers a good price at $8,299. If the budget is limited, consider choosing a cost-effective one. Second, the product warranty. Quanta 5032-LY6 provides a one-year warranty to consumers. In contrast, FS.COM N8000-32Q is backed by a five-year warranty. If you prefer a full follow-up guarantee, FS may be a good choice for you. Third, the operating system. Quanta 5032-LY6 comes pre-installed with ONIE, while FS.COM N8000-32Q pre-loaded with Cumulus Linux. For those interested in Cumulus operating system, FS.COM N8000-32Q 40G spine switch is definitely the ideal choice.


FS.COM N8000-32Q 40G spine switch belongs to FS N-series switches that designed for data center networks and high-end campus networks, providing stable, reliable and secure Layer 2/Layer 3 switching services. It delivers the high performance and port density with a complete chassis and fabric management solution, enabling converged data centers to operate at any scale while reducing operational costs and infrastructure complexity. In the previous articles, we introduced 10gb switch and 25gb switch of FS N-series switches. If you’d like one to improve your network, don’t hesitate to visit FS.COM.

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SDN vs Traditional Networking: Which Leads the Way?

SDN (Software Defined Networking) has recently received widespread attention from customers, vendors and channel partners. As time goes by, SDN has become one of the most common ways for organizations to deploy applications. This technology helps organizations deploy applications faster and reduce overall deployment costs. Over the years, the technology has been announced as the next focus of the networking industry. Many people are trying to figure out what SDN is and how it will affect their work as a network engineer. It’s time to delve into this emerging technology. This article will help you understand SDN and make SDN vs traditional networking to see which leads the way.

altSDN vs Traditional Networking

What Is SDN?

Emerged in the early 2010s, SDN refers to a network architecture model that allows programmatic management, control, and optimization of network resources. SDN decouples network configuration and traffic engineering from the underlying hardware infrastructure to ensure complete and consistent control of the network using open APIs. Basically, this is a way to use open protocols such as OpenFlow, which can apply globally aware software control at the edge of the network to access network switches and routers that typically use closed and proprietary firmware. SDN is defined by the decoupling of control and packet forwarding planes in the network. It is an architecture that reduces operating costs and speeds up the time required to make changes or provide new services. SDN also enables the network to connect directly to applications via APIs to improve security and application performance. SDN creates a dynamic and flexible network architecture that can change as business needs change.

What Is Traditional Networking?

Unlike SDN, traditional networking has two main characteristics. First, traditional networking functions are mainly implemented in dedicated devices. In this case, “dedicated devices” refer to one or more switches (e.g. 10gb switch), routers, and application delivery controllers. Second, most of the functionality in traditional networking devices is implemented in dedicated hardware. ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit) is commonly used for this purpose. However, this traditional hardware-centric networking is accompanied by many limitations. We will continue to discuss this issue later.

How Is SDN Different From Traditional Networking?

There are three most important differences between traditional networking and SDN.
·First, the SDN controller has a northbound interface that communicates with applications via application programming interfaces (APIs). This enables application developers to program the network directly. While traditional networking works through using protocols.
·Second, SDN is a software-based network, which allows users to control virtual-level resource allocation through the control plane and to determine network paths and proactively configure network services. While traditional networking relies on physical infrastructure (such as switches and routers) to establish connections and run properly.
·Third, SDN has more ability to communicate with devices throughout the network than traditional networking. SDN allows resources to be provisioned from a centralized location, and offer administrators the right to control traffic flow from a centralized user interface through more rigorous review. It virtualizes the entire network and gives users more control over their network capabilities. However, for traditional networking, the control plane is located in a switch or router, which is particularly inconvenient. The administrators cannot easily access it to dictate traffic flow.

Why Companies Are Shifting to SDN?

As data centers continue to change and traditional networking fails to adapt to the environment, vendors are turning to SDN. Here are some reasons.
·First, the proliferation of cloud services means that users need unfettered access to infrastructure, applications and IT resources. And this comes with requirement for more storage, computing, and bandwidth.
·Second, IT is becoming a consumer commodity where BYOD (bring-your-own-device) trend requires networks to be flexible and secure enough to protect data and assets as well as to meet compliance regulations and standards.
However, traditional networking cannot meet the increasing demands because it must adhere to product cycles and proprietary interfaces typical in vendor-specific environments. Network operators are often hindered when trying to customize the programming of the network. Adding and moving devices or bolstering capacity to traditional networking is complex and time-consuming. It requires manual access to individual devices and consoles. The reason SDN becomes an alternative is that it allows administrators to configure resources and bandwidth instantaneously and bring flexibility, efficiency, and resiliency to the data center. It also eliminates the need to invest in more physical infrastructure.


SDN vs Traditional Networking, it seems that the emerging technology SDN is going to revolutionize traditional networking. By adopting network automation, organizations will save a tremendous amount of time and significantly improve the flexibility of the network. If your network is equipped with traditional networking, how do you prepare for this inevitable transition?

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FS N8500-48B6C vs Edgecore AS7312-54XS 25G Bare Metal Switch

The bare metal switch is an open network switch that enables consumers to choose components like application, network operating system, hardware, and driver depending on their own needs. This flexible choice saves time and money for the project, meets different needs, and provides an affordable, easy-to-manage network environment, which is very beneficial to the business. In this article, we will focus on the 25G switch and make a comparison of FS N8500-48B6C 25G bare metal switch and Edgecore AS7312-54XS 25G bare metal switch.

Overview of FS 25G Bare Metal Switch

FS N8500-48B6C switch is a top-of-rack (TOR) or leaf 25G bare metal switch in a compact 1U form factor for high performance and programmable data center environments. It performs excellent low latency and power efficiency in a PHY less design while providing high-reliability features such as redundant and hot-swappable power supplies and fans in forward and reverse airflow configurations. The layer 3 switch supports advanced features such as MLAG, VxLAN, SFLOW, SNMP, and MPLS, making it ideal for a traditional or fully virtualized data center. FS N8500-48B6C supports current and future data center requirements, including an x86-based control plane for easier integration of automation tools, an ONIE installer for 3rd party network operating systems and compatibility with Software Defined Networks via OpenFlow 1.3.11. In addition, FS N8500-48B6C supports the advanced hardware-based VXLAN feature to support over 16M virtual networks.

altFS N8500-48B6C vs Edgecore AS7312-54XS 25G Bare Metal Switch

Overview of Edgecore 25G Bare Metal Switch

Edgecore AS7312-54XS switch is a top-of-rack (TOR) or spine 25G bare metal switch in a compact 1U form factor for high-performance data centers. Edgecore AS7312-54XS can be deployed as a TOR switch supporting 10/25 GbE to servers with 40/100 GbE uplinks, or as a spine switch supporting 40/100 GbE spine interconnects. This open network switch is loaded with the Open Network Install Environment (ONIE) which supports the installation of compatible Network Operating System software, including the open source options Open Network Linux and Open Switch, plus commercial NOS offerings.

altFS N8500-48B6C vs Edgecore AS7312-54XS 25G Bare Metal Switch

FS N8500-48B6C vs Edgecore AS7312-54XS

Though FS N8500-48B6C 25G bare metal switch and Edgecore AS7312-54XS 25G bare metal switch have a lot in common, they differ from each other with different features. Here we list the main characteristics of them.

Names FS N8500-48B6C Edgecore AS7312-54XS
Ports 48 48
Predominant Port Type 25GbE SFP28 25GbE SFP28
CPU Broadwell-DE 2.2Ghz 2-core Intel Atom® C2538 quad-core 2.4
Switching Chip Tomahawk+ BCM56967 Broadcom BCM56967 Tomahawk+
Jumbo Frames 9K Bytes 9216 Bytes
Switching Capacity 3.6Tbps full-duplex 3.6Tbps full-duplex
Forwarding Rate 4.7 Bpps 2.6 Bpps
Integrated Packet Buffer 16 MB 22 MB
MAC address 32K 8K / 136K
VLAN IDs 4 K 4 K
Compatible Software Option Cumulus Linux, Open Compute Project, PicOS™ from Pica8 Inc,  SnapRoute CN-NOS, and Broadcom- ICOS Cumulus Linux, Open Compute Project, PicOS™ from Pica8 Inc, and SnapRoute CN-NOS

Which One to Choose?

With all the features listed above, the FS 25G bare metal switch and Edgecore 25G bare metal switch both perform well during operation. In terms of price comparison, FS N8500-48B6C dominates the advantage. For all those features offered, FS N8500-48B6C has an MSRP of US$ 6,199, whereas Edgecore AS7312-54XS costs US$7,152. They both are ideal for high-performance data centers, if you want to buy a cost-effective with future requirements ensured, FS N8500-48B6C 25G bare metal switch will be your best choice.


Bare metal switch indeed makes our choice flexible and closer to our needs. FS N8500-48B6C 25G bare metal switch belongs to FS N-series switches designed for next-generation metro, data center and enterprise network applications. In addition, FS also offers S-series switches such as 1gbe switch, 10gbe switch, 40gbe switch, 100gbe switch. They are all designed to achieve flexibility, efficiency and cost effectiveness in data center networks. Just visit FS.COM, you’ll be surprised by all those cost-effective products.

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Overview and What Makes Cumulus Linux Stand Out?

The trend of virtualization and automation in the network along with the growing numbers of network users are leading dramatic changes in network infrastructure. The application of locking and proprietary legacy networks has changed. A trend of choosing applications, operating systems, and hardware prevails in modern data centers. Under such circumstances, an operating system called Cumulus Linux is designed to provide an open platform for a faster, easier and affordable network.

altOverview and What Makes Cumulus Linux Stand Out?

What Is Cumulus Linux?

Cumulus Network seized the opportunity from this trend and produced a powerful open network operating system named Cumulus Linux. Cumulus Linux based on Debian Jessie is the first native Linux network operating system for the networking industry, which runs on white-box switches, such as Gigabit Ethernet switch, 10gb switch etc.. It allows consumers to automate, customize and scale with web-scale principles such as the world’s largest data centers. This open approach enables choice with the best hardware, software, application, network architectures, and no vendor lock-in. Cumulus Linux is a solution that allows you to cost-effectively build and efficiently operate your network, just like the world’s largest data center operators, unlocking vertical network stacks.

What Makes Cumulus Linux Stand Out?

Build for automation, scalability, and flexibility, Cumulus Linux is gradually accepted by the public and offers a compelling set of benefits for network engineering and operations team.

Network Administration

Cumulus Linux leverages traditional Linux and networking tools. It can automatically discover network devices and provides advanced troubleshooting with tools such as Cumulus Linux’s prescriptive topology manager for topology consistency against a topology graph.

Network Operation

Cumulus Linux can fully automatic self-configuring, alerts and integration of maps and monitoring data via SNMP with real-time animated topology visualization.

Network Maintenance

Cumulus Linux can express complex logic for alert conditions incorporating dependencies and correlations between metrics. It can generate customizable performance and availability reports on Vlans, network switch ports, subnets, protocols and more.

Network Provisioning

Cumulus Linux allows zero-touch installation and provisioning to simplify operations. It uses embedded Python scripting engine and SQL like query syntax for deep data analysis and capacity forecasting.

Network Efficiency

Cumulus Linux allows consumers to choose compatible hardware and chain control depending on their needs and budgets. By adopting Linux principles for networking, consumers have achieved operational efficiency by 95% and reduced TCO by up to 60%. Therefore, with the help of Cumulus Linux, a simpler, scalable, and faster deployment network can be built.

How Do You Configure a Cumulus Device?

There are three simple ways to configure Cumulus Linux. One is to use a bash prompt which runs the Cumulus Linux. The other is to install Chef, Puppet or CF engine and then use your DevOps pipeline to configure the network devices. Or you can choose to use ONIE (Open Network Install Environment) with local HTTP discovery. But you have to be aware that If your host (laptop or server) is IPv6-enabled, make sure your host is running a web server. If the host is IPv4-enabled, make sure your host is running DHCP in addition to a web server.

What’s the Challenge Ahead?

The networking industry has long believed that the integration of network hardware and software is critical to network speed and reliability. But as technology evolved, it proves that hardware and software work better when they are developed independently. The advantages include faster product development and freedom from vendor lock-in. However, there is no final conclusion about the robustness of network support and the viability of switching suppliers. Cumulus Network says it will support its own software and the third-party hardware on which it runs, and will troubleshoot itself to provide valuable use cases for openness. But on the negative side, the product line offers limited hardware choices. The company requires customers to manage their network infrastructure with tools like Chef, Puppet and the Bash shell. For customers who are not familiar with these tools have to weigh these pros and cons when they are ready to transition to a separate network environment.


Cumulus Linux can run multiple network paths without the needs for multiple switches and offer traffic isolation and network segmentation for multiple devices. It’s the best choice for network flexibility and innovation. Although there are still some challenges on the road ahead, Cumulus Network will continue to find ways to solve the problems and create a better network environment.

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Cisco SFP+ Modules or 3rd Party SFP+ Modules, Which Is Better?

In order to cater to the development of interface technology, SFP+ module has been introduced to provide a perfect solution with high port density and low cost. SFP+ module is an upgrade version of SFP module which stands for a small form-factor pluggable module. There are many different brands of SFP+ on the market, such as Cisco, HP, Juniper, Brocade, FS, etc.. Among these brands, Cisco is favored by most people. However, with the rising of 3rd party vendors, modules produced by the 3rd party have gone popular with their lower price and good quality. But the doubts and praises around them have never stopped. This article will help you compare all aspects of the products and help to choose Cisco SFP+ modules or 3rd party SFP+ modules.

altCisco SFP+ Modules or 3rd Party SFP+ Modules, Which Is Better?

Cisco or 3rd Party SFP+ Modules: What’s the Difference?

As we know, Cisco provides reliable SFP+ modules, while 3rd party also offers various SFP+ modules. So what’s the difference between them?


The biggest difference between Cisco SFP+ modules or 3rd party SFP+ modules is the manufacturer. In fact, there are only a few qualified manufacturers. They supply all the raw components for all the transceivers on the market. To be honest, Cisco does not produce its own SFP+ modules or SFP fibers. Cisco is known to purchase optical transceivers from its suppliers who code and label for Cisco and then sell the transceivers to consumers. In this way, most 3rd party compatible modules are built and assembled in the same factory as Cisco. Above all, SFP+ modules are produced according to strict standards of MSA (Multi-Source Agreement), which determines the performance of the modules. Therefore, 3rd party SFP+ modules can be as good as Cisco SFP+ modules.


The compatibility of SFP+ modules is controlled by OEM software codes embedded in the transceiver. Cisco SFP+ modules are not encouraged to use in other brands equipment because codes from different vendors might be unmatched. However, a good 3rd party vendor can make multi-coded compatible transceivers that can support different equipment. Taking FS.COM as an example, FS.COM provides a range of SFP+ transceivers that compatible with the mainstream brands on the market, such as Cisco, HP, Juniper, Brocade, Dell, Extreme, H3C, Arista, Huawei, Intel, IBM etc.. The compatibility and durability of the modules are strictly tested and controlled to ensure product reliability. So there is no need to worry that the 3rd party modules you bought will be incompatible with your devices.

Future Demands

As we know that the data center often accommodates tens of thousands of devices. With your network system grows, it’s hard to connect SFP+ modules from different vendors. In this case, the function of 3rd party vendors reveals. 3rd party vendors can provide various compatible SFP+ modules to satisfy all your needs. Whereas Cisco SFP+ modules are not encouraged to use in other brands, even some of its own Cisco switches. Because different Cisco switches have distinct requirements for codes and hardware, you have to buy the specific one. In this case, Cisco modules are not that supportive for your future demands.


It’s not surprising that Cisco SFP+ modules have a higher price over 3rd party SFP+ modules. Take a 10GBASE-SR SFP+ for example, a Cisco 10GBASE-SR SFP+ sells for $691, but a 3rd party vendor FS.COM sells the same product just for $16. Unbelievable, right? It’s not reasonable for consumers to pay extra money just for a brand logo.

Why Are Cisco SFP+ Modules More Expensive?

If the SFP+ modules are the same, why is a Cisco SFP+ module more expensive than a 3rd party one? There are two main reasons for that. The first reason is that Cisco claims that it has a higher quality than others and it has tested every SFP+ module to ensure the performance. But actually many transceiver manufacturers can do the test now. The other reason is the brand effect. It takes a cost to build a brand, but the benefits brought by the brand is also obvious. Cisco is a large equipment manufacturer with its own unique brand advantages, known by a number of consumers. It makes sense that Cisco has higher product prices.

Is the Quality of 3rd Party Guaranteed?

Certainly. The optical transceiver module is standardized by SFP MSA, which means there is no big difference between Cisco and 3rd party optical transceivers due to the same rules and standards. In addition, if the equipment is defective, the supplier is obliged to fulfill the warranty. The 3rd party has a comprehensive warranty policy to provide technical support and protection to consumers. Although Cisco claims that adding 3rd party modules does not void the warranty unless problems are caused by 3rd party modules. In general, it’s unlikely that SFP+ modules will induce damages to the slot itself. The statement sounds more like a self-interest protection.


Excellent 3rd party vendors have proved themselves with good quality and reputation over the years. If you have found a reliable 3rd party vendor, choosing between high price Cisco SFP+ modules and cost-effective 3rd party SFP+ modules is not difficult. FS.COM is a professional optical transceiver manufacturer that provides a full selection of major brands’ compatible transceiver modules with strict tests and high quality. Along with the support of large inventory and efficient delivery, FS.COM can certainly meet the needs of your network.

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Cisco Single Mode SFP VS Cisco Multimode SFP

SFP (shorts for Small Form-Factor Pluggable) is a compact, hot-pluggable transceiver used for both telecommunication and data communications applications. It interfaces to motherboard, router, switch or optical media converter. There are two types of SFP, single mode SFP and multimode SFP. And this articles will focus on Cisco SFP  and make a comparison of Cisco single mode SFP and Cisco multimode SFP.

alt Cisco Single Mode SFP

What Is Cisco Single Mode SFP?

Cisco single mode SFP works over single mode fiber whose typical core diameter is 9µm. And the cladding diameter of a single mode fiber is 125µm. Cisco single mode SFP operates mainly at 1310nm and 1550nm wavelengths and is used in long-haul transmission environments of 2km, 10km, 40km, 60km, 80km, and 120km. Cisco single mode SFP consists of 1000BASE-EX SFP, 1000BASE-ZX SFP, 1000BASE-BX10-D SFP, 1000BASE-BX10-U SFP, and 1000BASE-LX/LH SFP. For detailed information, please check the chart below.

Cisco Single Mode SFP Part Number Description
1000BASE-EX SFP GLC-EX-SMD Operates on single mode fiber over a wavelength of 1310nm for 40km
1000BASE-EX SFP GLC-EX-SM1550-40 operates on single mode fiber over a wavelength of 1550nm for 40km
1000BASE-ZX SFP GLC-ZX-SM/GLC-ZX-SMD/GLC-ZX-SM-RGD Operates on single mode fiber over a wavelength of 1550nm for 80km
1000BASE-BX10-D SFP GLC-BX-10D Operates on single mode fiber over a wavelength of 1550nm for 10km
1000BASE-BX10-U SFP GLC-BX-10U Operates on single mode fiber over a wavelength of 1310nm for 10km
1000BASE-LX/LH SFP GLC-LX-SM-RGD/GLC-LH-SM/GLC-LH-SMD Operates on single mode fiber over a wavelength of 1310nm for 10km
1000BASE-LX/LH SFP GLC-LH-SM-20 Operates on single mode fiber over a wavelength of 1310nm for 20km

What Is Cisco Multimode SFP?

Cisco multimode SFP works over multimode fiber with the core diameter of 50 µm and 62.5 µm, and the cladding diameter is 125µm as well. The common multimode SFP operates at 850nm wavelength and is only used for short distance transmission of 100m and 500m. For detailed information, please check the chart below.

Cisco Single Mode SFP Part Number Description
1000BASE-SX SFP GLC-SX-MMD/GLC-SX-MM-RGD/GLC-SX-MM Operates on multimode fiber over a wavelength of 850nm for 550m
1000BASE-LX/LH SFP SFP-GE-L/GLC-LX-SM-RGD/GLC-LH-SM/GLC-LH-SMD Operates on multimode fiber over a wavelength of 1310nm for 550m

Cisco Single Mode SFP VS Cisco Multimode SFP

Cisco single mode  and multimode SFP modules can both server for transmitting and receiving optical signals and facilitate communication. However, the differences between them are also apparent. Here we will compare them from several aspects.

Connected Fibers

Cisco single mode SFP will work with single mode fiber in order to perform both transmission and reception of data. Whereas Cisco multimode SFP will work with multimode fiber to provide higher speed at shorter distance.

Transmission Distance

Cisco single mode SFP can support distance value as high as 80km or even 120km and mostly used in long distances (up to 10km) transmission environment. Whereas Cisco multimode SFP supports distance up to 550m, more used in a small area or within the building.

Supported Wavelength

Cisco single mode SFP works mainly on 1310nm and 1550nm wavelength, while Cisco multimode SFP works mainly on 850nm wavelength.

Preferential Usage

Cisco single mode SFP is mostly required on WAN connectivity. Whereas Cisco multimode SFP is used inside LAN for the switch, router and server connectivity inside building or data center.


Generally speaking, Cisco single mode SFP is costly and Cisco multimode SFP is cheaper. That’s because Cisco single mode SFP requires a laser source for transmission and it typically uses a laser diode (LD) as the light source, which is expensive. While Cisco multimode SFP uses a light emitting diode (LED) as the light source.


Now we learn a lot about Cisco single mode SFP and multimode SFP. Before you choose the SFP transceiver, you have to confirm the transmission distance and the wavelength you need and also the cables you already have. Remember that single mode and multimode are not interchangeable. So you have to take into account your actual situation and budget. To save more, you can choose a compatible transceiver module from FS.COM to match all your devices without sacrificing any quality or reliability but only at a lower cost. FS.COM offers various SFPs with a great offer that may be a good choice for you.

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